Matthew 13:24-30, 36-43
The parable of the weeds is unique to Matthew. Thiselton says the kingdom parables are "designed to capture the listener and make him a participant, overturning his world-view and leading him to call in question his most basic values." The opposite is more likely the case. Kingdom Parables are quite different from teaching parables. They derive in form from extended metaphors (although the parable of the weeds in the field is more like an allegory). They defy being allegories. Dodd says they are gospel statements proclaiming the "present-ness" of the kingdom and so take the form of a mysterious, obscure, profound proverb - an extended riddle like a Hebrew masal. So the kingdom parable function as an instrument of divine judgment on those who have heard the gospel but have not responded.
v24 αυτοις dat. pro. "[Jesus set before] them A Dative of direct object
λεγων (λεγω) pres. part. "-" - saying
των ουρανων (ος) gen. "[the kingdom] of heaven" - the kingdom is clearly a heavenly one over which God reigns and is now impacting the present age through Christ. Matthew may be showing deference to God by not mentioning his name (Mark and Luke use "kingdom of God") i.e. the kingdom belongs to God, the rule of God is in mind, but possession is the intent not the action.
ωμοιωθη (ομοιοω) aor. pas. "is like"
σπειραντι (σπειρω) dat. aor. part. "[a man] who sowed" that pesky farmer returns. This is a Dative in agreement with ανθρωπω, "man", so "may be likened to a farmer."
καλον adj. "good [seed]" i.e. carefully selected
v25 εν ... τω/ καθευδειν (καθευδω) pres. inf. "while [everyone] was sleeping" – i.e. in the middle of the night,
επεσπειρεν (επισπειρω) aor. "sowed" – another farmer is at work.
ζιζανια (ον) "weeds" - Bearded Darnel - a poisonous weed which, in the early stages of growth, looks like wheat.
v26 ο χορτος (ος) "wheat" –, actually means "an enclosed place for feeding", but in the NT takes the sense of "fodder" 0- the puirpsoe of this grass was to feed cattle, not people..
v27 του οικοδεσποτου (ης ου) gen. "the owner's [servants]" not the farmer? The who is the farmer? And who is the householder?
προσελθοντες (προσερχομαι) aor. part. "came" - approached.
κυριε voc. "Sir" - vocative.
ουχι .... εσπειρας "didn't you sow ... ?" a rhetorical question.
v28 εχθρος ανθρωπος "a hostile man – this is not the result of some supernatural interference, it is clearly sabotage and intentional.
απελθοντες (απερχομαι) aor. part. "[do you want] us to go" – another rhetorical question.
συλλεξωμεν (συλλεγω) aor. subj. "pull them up"
v29 μηποτε + subj. "because" conveying a negated purpose; "in order that you may not ...."
συλλεγοντες (συλλεγω) pres. part. "while you are pulling [the weeds]" - gathering, collecting – another statement regarding intentions. Good intentions do not always serve the purposes of the Kingdom.
εκριζωσητε (εκριζω) aor. subj. "may root up" - may pull up by the roots. "The danger is that you may tear up the wheat by the roots at the same time", Barclay.
v30 αφετε (αφιημι) aor. imp. "let" – actually forgive..
συναυξανεσθαι (συναξανω) pres. pas. inf. "grow together".
του θερισμου (ος) gen. of the harvest.
τοις θερισταις (ης ου) dat. "[I will tell] the harvesters"
δησατε (δεω) imp. " bind together”.
προς το κατακαυσαι (κατακαιω) aor. inf. "to be burned" - clause expressing purpose;
συναγαγετε (συναγω) aor. imp. "gather together
v36 αφεις (αφιημι) aor. part. "he left/abandoned [the crowd]. Adverbial/temporal; "then he left the crowds".
λεγοντες (λεγω) pres. part. "and said" – (asked)
διασαφησον (διασαφεω) aor. imp. "to make clear through an explanation”.
ημιν dat. pro. "to us"
v37 ο σπειρων (σπειρω) part. "the one who sowed" - present tense may indicate ongoing sowing.
του ανθρωπου (ος) gen. "[the Son] of Man" so Jesus is the farmer.
v38 ο κοσμος "the world" – an unusual phrase for Matthew, the inhabited earth, not the church.
της βασιλειας (α) gen. "[the ones] of the kingdom" - seed usually represents the gospel, but not here. The adjective "good seed" designates the ‘sh’er sh’uv” the returned remnant of Israel – children of the kingdom which now includes Gentiles who bear fruit (cf. 21:43).
του πονηρου adj. "[the ones] of the evil [one]" – and the other farmer is identified.
v39 ο σπειρας (σπειρω) aor. part. "who having sown”.
ο διαβολος "the devil" - the principal supernatural being..
συντελεια αιωνος "the consummation of the age" TEOTWAWKI The end of the world as we know it!, Barclay; "the end time", note that both nouns in v40 take a definite article. Matthew and Jesus have particular persons in mind.
αγγελοι (ος) "angels" – messengers; angels are often associated with the judgment in the last day (Rev.14:15-19),.
v40 ωσπερ ..... ουτως "as ...... so [it will be]" - in this way.
πυρι (πυρ ος) dat. "[burned] in the fire" –or "by fire."
του αιωνος (ων ωνος) gen. "[the end] of the age" - [the consummation] of the age. This phrase is used by Matthew in the Great Commission (28:16-20).
v41 αποστελει (αποστελλω) fut. "he will send" - expressing Jesus' authority over the angels τους αγγελους (ος).
τα σκανδαλα (ον) "[everything] that is a stumbling block- probably referring to persons rather than things that lead believers astray.
τους ποιουντας (ποιεω) pres. part. "all who do [evil]" - the ones working, doing a substantive, forming the substantival phrase "the ones doing lawlessness" = "law-breakers".
v42 βαλουσιν "they will throw" - a vigorous action; "pitch them in the trash and be done"..
του πυρος (υρ υρος) gen. "[the] fiery [furnace]" – (Dan.3:6)- picture language, describing the horror of judgment, not a literal burning alive of the unrepentant.
οδοντων (δους) gen. "[weeping and gnashing] of teeth" - genitive is objective but can just as easily be taken as adjectival- a physical expression of anger or frustration serving to illustrate a terrible end. Matthew likes this phrase..
v43 οι δικαιοι adj. "the righteous ones" – counter to "the lawless ones".
εκλαμψσουσιν (εκλαμπω) fut. "shine" – a Hapax legomenon, possibly influenced by Dan.12:3 describing the radiance of the age to come, i.e. Jesus' disciples will share his glory.
ο εξων (εχω) pres. part. "he who has [ears]" a fancy way of saying, PAY ATTENTION – the constant refrain of Christ.