On Tuesday morning the pastors of Lutheran Saints in Ministry gather in Fairborn Ohio to discuss the texts for Sunday.

These are the contributions that are brought to the table.

Tuesday, September 9, 2014

Matthew 18:22-35 in Greek - Pr. Fourman

Matthew 18:21-35

v21 προσελθων (προσερχομαι) aor. part. "came" - having come, approached. Attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the verb "said".
κυριε (ος) "Lord" – a common form of address given to Jesus by the disciples. Probably not used as a divine address, although it is the way we use it of Jesus. For the disciples it can range from respect, "Sir", to identifying the person in charge, "boss".
ποσακις adv. "how many times?" - Literally, "how many times will my brother sin against me and I will forgive him?" Seeking a limit for forgiving certainly relates to the previous passage where God has no limit when it comes to his forgiving, but it is a different issue. 
ο αδελφος (ος) "[my] brother [or sister]" - context would imply "brother" here means fellow believer, but it is possible to render a general translation as "fellow man”.
εως + gen. "up to [seven times]" - spacial denoting an upper limit. Under Rabbinic law the upper limit was 3 - Peter's 7 possibly means "a lot".

v22 αυτω dat. pro. "[Jesus answered]" a dative of indirect object.
σοι dat. pro. "[I tell] you" – a dative of indirect object.
εβδομηκοντακις επτα "seventy-seven times"  (possibly seventy times seven or 490, or seventy plus seven i.e. 77). If Jesus is quoting Gen.4:24 then it is 77  but in either case it means more than a lot. 

v23 The parable of the unmerciful official, (v23-34).  Matthew's intent in using this parable in the present context is unclear. As a kingdom parable it confronts the reader with the present reality of the coming kingdom and of our need to repent and believe in response to it. It is, in the fullest sense, a gospel message, as are all kingdom parables. 
των ουρανων (ος) gen. "[the kingdom] of heaven" - genitive is adjectival, probably, limiting "kingdom"; i.e. a "heavenly kingdom" as opposed to an earthly kingdom. As usual Matthew shows deference to God with "the kingdom of heaven" rather than "the kingdom of God", although both refer to the eternal reign of God in and through Christ. "
ωμοιωθη (ομοιοω) aor. pas. "is like" – a comparative. better, "can be compared with the situation which arose when a king wished to settle accounts with his servants.
λογον (ος) "accounts" - often meaning "word, speech or revelation used here in the forensic sense of calculation, reckoning, or the settlement of an account.
δουλων (ος) "servants" - Usually meaning "servant/slave", but here is suggested that these servants are the king’s regional governors so it is likely that the man in question is the kings treasurer and he has been cooking the books.

v24 αρξαμενου (αρχω) gen. aor. part. "as he began" - a temporal clause.
συναιρειν (συναιρω) pres. inf. "the settlement of accounts - the infinitive is complementary.
ταλαντων (ον) "[ten thousand] talents " – a value hard to define since a "talent" is a measure of weight, it could be gold, silver or copper and so varies in value. The point is 10,000 of them is a king's ransom.
προσηνεχθη (προσφερω) aor. pas. "was brought" - possibly indicating compulsion.
v25 μη εχοντος (εχω) gen. part. "since he was not able" – i.e. "because."
αποδουναι (αποδιδωμι) aor. inf. "to pay".
ο κυριος "the master". The use of κυριος, "Lord", three times in this parable has prompted some to suggest Matthew wants his reader to equate the king with Jesus.
πραθηναι (πιπρασκω) aor. pas. inf. "[he ordered] that ........ be sold". The infinitive forms a dependent statement of indirect speech expressing what the master commanded.
αποδοθηναι (αποδιδωμι) aor. pas. inf. "to repay the debt" = to render what is due. The infinitive is adverbial, forming .

v26 πεσων (πιπτω) aor. part. "at this [the servant] fell" προσεκυνει (προσκυνεω) imperf. "on his knees before" - he prostrates himself. The imperfect expressing the continuation of this position during his pleading.
λεγων (λεγω) part. "he begged" - adverbial, modal, expressing the manner; "he worshiped him saying .....".
μακροθυμησον (μακροθυμεω) aor. imp. "be patient" - long-suffering, an appeal to a superior for forbearance.
αποδωσω (αποδιδωμι) fut. "I will pay [you] back" which, of course, is absurd since the debt is beyond repayment.

v27 του δουλου (ος) gen. "the servant's [lord]" - The genitive is subordination; "the master who ruled over that servant."
σπλαγχνισθεις (σπλαγχνιζομαι) aor. pas. part. "took pity on him" - filled with tenderness, affection – a word usually used of Jesus.  
αφηκεν (αφιημι) aor. "cancelled, forgave, pardoned, cancelled” same word Jesus uses in the Lord’s prayer 
το δανειον (ον) "the debt". The servant claims that he intends repaying the debt.

v28 δηναρια (ον) "denarii" - One denarius, a Roman silver coin, at the time the value of a worker's daily wage. To have a comparative, tne hundred is quite a sum, ten thousand talents is a butt load - there were 6,000 denarii in one talent.
κρατησας (κρατεω) aor. part. "he grabbed [him]" he επνιγεν (πνιγω) imperf. "began to choke" him. Not unusual for Greek, but very unusual (and violent) for the NT. 
αποδος (αποδιδωμι) aor. imp. "pay back" the servant uses the same words.
ει τι οφειλεις (οφειλω) "[pay back] what you owe" - where ει τι, (if anything) forms an indefinite phrase. The sense is "if you have something of mine give it back", is an idiom for "repay what you owe." There is no "if" about it.

v29 πεσων (πιπτω) aor. part. "fell to his knees" - attendant circumstance participle expressing action 
μακροθυμησον (μακροθυμεω) aor. imp. "be patient" – idiom, "Give me time" – you get the modern image of a payday lender here. The debt is legit, but in light of the circumstances the repayment demand, while perfectly legal (therefore by societal standards perfectly moral) is abhorrent
v30 ουκ ηθελεν (θελω) imperf. "refused" - direct discourse, "I refuse." Since an imperfect it is a sustained and repeated refusal.
απελθων (απερχομαι) aor. part. "he departed” - attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the verb "he threw"; "he left and cast him into prison."

v31 ιδοντες (οραω) aor. part. "when [the other servants] saw" - having seen. The participle is adverbial, best taken as forming a temporal clause, as NIV.
τα γενομενα (γινομαι) aor. part. "what was done".
ελυπηθησαν (λυπεω) aor. pas. "they were distressed/outraged".
ελθοντες (ερχομαι) aor. part. "going" they διεσαφησαν (διασαφεω) aor. "told" - explained, made clear, informed, τω κυριω "[their] master" – thus undermining for all time the parental direction to not be a tattle tale. 
τα γενομενα (γινομαι) aor. mid. part. "[everything] that had happened" – a complete account, noting was left out, no detail was spared – the plain unadulterated truth.

v32 προσκαλεσαμενος (προσκαλεομαι) aor. part. "calling" - attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the verb "said"; 
πονηρε voc. adj. "you wicked [servant]" – direct address – this is now personal.
σοι "[I canceled your debt" – a dative of indirect object; "for you." "I said you did not have to pay back a penny!”
επει "because [you begged me to]" - one act of mercy ought to beget another" – call it the logic of love, we might say “I paid it forward”.
v33 ουκ "[should]n't [you]" - a negated question formed to prompt an affirmative answer. The verb εδει "is necessary" is quite strong giving the sense "is it not necessary".
ελεησαι (ελεεω) aor. inf. "mercy" – the quality of divine compassion, ως "just as [I had mercy on you]" – a comparative.

v34 οργισθεις (οργιζομαι) aor. pas. part. "in anger" - the participle is adverbial, so, "because he was angry."
τοις βασανισταις (ης ου) dat. "jailers/torturers” – a dative of indirect object. The idea was to torment the person in prison so that the relatives and friends would raise the necessary funds to pay off the debt.
εως  subj. "until [he should pay back]" – a construction forming an indefinite temporal clause future time; "until he should pay the entire debt", which of course is never.
το οφειλομενον (οφειλω) pres. mid. part. "[all] he owed" . 

v35 ουτως και "and this [is how]" - thus, so also, the adverb ουτως makes an inferential reference to what proceeds, "thus/so", and και draws a comparison, "also/likewise." Judgment in the face of the coming kingdom is what faces us if we fail to show real forgiveness. Once again a Matthean discourse ends with a threat of judgment. 
εαν μη + subj. "unless" - Here introducing a negated 3rd. class conditional clause where the condition has a possibility of coming true; "unless, as may be the case, you forgive your ....... then this is how my heavenly Father ......"
εκαστος adj. "-" - each. The adjective serves as a substantive, "everyone".
τω αδελφω (ος) dat. "[his] brother " fellow believer/fellow human – a dative of direct object after the verb αφιημι, "to forgive."

απο των καρδιων υμων "from your heart". The prepositional construction formed by απο is adverbial, modal, expressing manner; so "sincerely forgive". In the New Testament, the heart, of course, is the center of our will and intellect, not the center of emotions. 

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