On Tuesday morning the pastors of Lutheran Saints in Ministry gather in Fairborn Ohio to discuss the texts for Sunday.

These are the contributions that are brought to the table.

Tuesday, October 14, 2014

Greek Considerations for Matthew 22:15-22 -- Pr. Fourman

Matthew 22:15-22

v15 τοτε adv. "then" - Temporal adverb, used to make the point that the religious leaders' attempt to "trap" Jesus is a response to the parable of the Wedding Feast.
πορευθεντες (πορευομαι) aor. part. "went out" - attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the main verb "take" so "snuck off."
ελαβον (λαμβανω) aor. "laid [plans]".
παγιδευσωσιν (παγιδευω) aor. sub. "trap [him]" - they "planned how they could trick Jesus into saying something wrong", CEV.
αποστελλουσιν (αποστελλω) pres. "they sent" - they a dramatic present to increase the impact of the moment.
Ηρωδιανων "the Herodians" - The only reference to this party found in the New Testament; supporters of Herod and therefore supporters of the Roman occupation.
διδασκαλε (ος) voc. "teacher" – a title of respect.
αληθης adj. "a man of truth" - integrity.
του θεου (ος) gen. "[you teach the way] of God" – i.e. t way of life willed by God.
εν αληθεια "in [accordance with] the truth" – i.e. in faithfulness. It is doubtful they actually believe Jesus teaches divine truth, but they may believe he is sincere about his teachings. They are damning him with faint praise.
ανθρωπων (ος) gen. "[because you do not look into face] of men” a genitive possessive, "a man's face" an idiom, "you are not swayed by a person's outward show" "you don't pander." 
v17 δουναι (διδωμι) aor. inf. "to pay" - an infinitival clause subject of the verb εξεστιν, "is it right/permissible" to pay κηνσον (ος)  “the imperial tax" - The tax here is not the regular duties levied on goods etc. but the poll tax, a direct administrative tax levied by the Roman government on the Jewish populous. It was hated by the Jews.
Καισαρι dat. "to Caesar" – a dative of indirect object; the Roman government.
γνους (γινωσκω) aor. part. "knowing" - having adverbial, probably causal, "because he was aware of their την πονηριαν (α) "evil intent."
υποκριται (ης ου) "hypocrites" – those who wear a mask {i.e. actors} - their flattery shows they are not genuine seekers of the truth.
πειραζετε "trap" a word that can mean "test" in the sense of putting someone to a test with the intention of faulting them, the same word used of Jesus time in the wilderness with Satan.  
δηναριον (ον) "a denarius " - a silver Roman coin valued at a day's wage that carried the emperor's image and often a religious inscription (eg. Tiberious, "God and High Priest"). As such it was highly offensive to the pious Jew; certainly not something you would carry into the Temple, but the poll tax had to be paid with this coinage.
λεγει (λεγω) pres. "he asked" – the historical present tense for dramatic effect. Also found in v21a, 21b.
η εικων (η) "imageη επιγραφη (η) "[and whose] inscription" 
v21 αποδοτε (αποδιδωμι) aor. imp. "give" - the word carries the sense of returning something that rightly belongs to another. No matter how the Jews may despise the Romans, they are obliged to contribute to the cost of government, given that they share in its benefits. 
καισαρι τα καισαρος "Give to Caesar what is Caesar's" - the things of Caesar. As with "of God", the genitive "of Caesar" is adjectival, possessive." 

v22 ακουσαντες (ακουω) aor. part. "when they heard this" εθαυμασαν (θαυμαζω) aor. "they were amazed" - used to describe a pre-faith response to Jesus; more than mere acknowledgment, less than transforming faith.
αφεντες (αφιημι) aor. part. "so they left [him]” – a word normally from legal usage; they ‘remitted” or ‘released” him, i.e. they suspended their legal attacks.

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