On Tuesday morning the pastors of Lutheran Saints in Ministry gather in Fairborn Ohio to discuss the texts for Sunday.

These are the contributions that are brought to the table.

Wednesday, February 4, 2015

Mark 1:29-39 Greek Texts Studies

Mark 1:29-39

v29 ευθυς "as soon" - immediately. Mark regularly uses this word to portray the activity of Jesus' ministry.
την οικιαν (α) "the house [of Simon and Andrew]" - genitive "of Simon and Andrew" is possessive. Excavations of the first Christian church, close to the Jewish synagogue, in Capernaum, shows that the church is built atop a private home. As the early church worshiped in private homes it has been suggested that this home is Peter and Andrew’s.

v30 Σιμωνος (ων ονος) "Simon's [mother-in-law]" κατεκειτο (κατακειμαι) imperf. "was in bed" lying down; an idiopm, in madern parlance, “she was laid up with an illness”.
πυρεσσουσα (πυρεσσω) pres. part. fever-stricken,  a high temperature was not necessarily dangerous, but was viewed as a consequence "of divine punishment or demon possession.
λεγουσιν (λεγω) pres. "they told" - an impersonal plural not attributed to the Disciples.
v31 προσελθων (προσερχομαι) pres. part. "So he went to her" and ηγειρεν (εγειρω) aor. "raised her up" – the word is used a number of times for a healing with allusion to resurrection – here likely used literally, “he helped her out of bed” the healing is clearly implied..
κρατησας (κρατεω) aor. part. + gen. "took her hand" – as above, accompanying the verb "raised"; "he went to her, took her hand and lifted her up",  - this is descriptive of the “hands-on approach” of Jesus indelibly marked on the disciples memory and carried into the Markan tradition.
διηκονει (διακονεω) imperf. + dat. of persons. "began to wait on" - she was serving, an inceptive imperfect stressing the beginning of the action indicating the totality of the healing; "she returned to her duties." An idiom; her normal life was restored to her.

v32 οψιας gen. adj. "that evening" – sa genitive in agreement with "having come." The Sabbath was over, Mark makes a point of both Jesus and the crowd obeying Sabbath regulations, although he may just be saying that the crowd was keen to see Jesus and did so as soon as they were able.
γενομενης (γινομαι) gen. aor. part. "beginning”. genitive absolute participle forms a temporal clause; οτε "after [sunset]".
εδυ (δυϖω) aor. "[sun]set" – to go down.
εφερον (φερω) imperf. "the people brought" - were carrying, the imperfect is durative, repeated action; "they kept on bringing"  
τους ... εχοντας (εχω) κακως pres. part. "those having badness". ie. the sick.
τους δαιμονιζομενους (δαιμονιζομαι) pres. pas. part. "the demon-possessed" - the same as the sick, plus (in Mark) those who deformed in any way. 

v33 ολη η πολις "all the people" – an idiom = "a big crowd"
ην ... επισυνηγμενη (επισυναγω) perf. pas. part. "gathered" – a perephrastic pluperfect = "synagogue" derives from this word, so Mark is saying something like "the whole town formed a congregation at the door.
v34 εθεραπευσεν (θεραπευω) aor. "[Jesus] healed
πολλους adj. "many" -  literally all the ones." 
εχοντας (εχω) pres. part. "having”  κακως badness
νοσοις (ος) dat. "[various] diseases" - dative is adverbial, so “many who were ill with  ποικιλαις, "various".
εξεβαλεν (εκβαλλω) aor. "he drove out" – exorcised the deamons, “healed” diseases, two actions. .
λαλειν (λαλεω) pres. inf. "[would not let the demons] speak".
οτι "because" - explaining why Jesus would not let the demons speak.
ηδεισαν (οιδα) pluperf. "they had known” pluperfect is intensive expressing abiding results - Mark notes Jesus silenced the demons which may have to do with the messianic secret but more likely that by silencing the demons he is demonstrating his power and authority over them. 

v35 πρωι εννυχα λιαν adv. "Very early in the morning, while it was still dark" - Jesus is an early riser in Mark.  (Apparently he, also, has a Protestant work ethic! Or maybe he just doesn’t like people as much as we are led to believe and so rises early to void them.)
αναστας (ανιστημι) aor. part. "Jesus got up" - having arisen. Attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the main verbs "went out" and "went away"; "very early in the morning Jesus rose up and left, making his way to a solitary place", Cassirer.
απηλθεν (απερχομαι) aor. "went off" - out of the house and out of Capernaum, and away from the crowds. Mark uses this word in the sense of going away from people rather than going away from a place. 
ερημον adj. "a solitary [place]" a wilderness image.
προσηυχετο (προσευχομαι) imperf. "[where] he prayed" - expressing continued action, so Mark is describing what Jesus is doing when the disciples found him and also the true reason for his getting up early and avoiding the crowds.  Piety trumps extroversion

v36 κατεδιωξεν (καταδιωκω) aor. "went looking for" – to hunt down, pursue closely, track down, follow after. Simon and the other three disciples are a bit ‘clingy’ at this point. 

v37 ευρον (ευρισκω) aor. "when they found him" – the Greekk sentence runs from v36; "Simon and his companions searched for him, found him and  λεγουσιν (λεγω) pres. "exclaimed" – an historic present tense expressing what was happening at that time.
παντες adj. "everyone" –to emphasize completeness (all you all).

v38 αγωμεν (αγω) subj. "we go" – A hortatory subjunctive  αλλαχου adv. "elsewhere "
ecomenaV (ecw) pres. mid. part. "nearby" – (lit. possessing) here an idiom limiting "villages", the middle voice has the meaning, "neighboring".
κωμοπολεις (ις εως) "villages" - Jesus probably means other market towns like Capernaum rather than just all the local villages.  So Capernaum may be the center of local commerce, but it is not the center of Jesus’ world.
ινα + subj. "so that [I may preach] a purpose clause.
εξηλθον (εξερχομαι) aor. "I have come" - possibly came out from Capernaum, or came out on a mission, or even, came forth from the Father. This statement at one level it serves to explain why Jesus came out from Capernaum, at another level it serves to explain the purpose of his ministry. 

v39 ηλθεν (ερχομαι) aor. "so he wentεις ολην "throughout  the whole [of Galilee]" κηρυσσων (κηρυσσω) pres. part. "preaching" - participle,  εκβαλλων  "driving out

εις "in [their synaogues]" - expressing movement toward their synagogues, so is likely an idiom for “itinerant preacher and healer”.

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