On Tuesday morning the pastors of Lutheran Saints in Ministry gather in Fairborn Ohio to discuss the texts for Sunday.

These are the contributions that are brought to the table.

Saturday, March 21, 2015

John 12::20-33 Greeek Study

John 12:20–33

20Now among those who went up to worship at the festival were some Greeks.  21They came to Philip, who was from Bethsaida in Galilee, and said to him, "Sir, we wish to see Jesus."  22Philip went and told Andrew; then Andrew and Philip went and told Jesus.  23Jesus answered them, "The hour has come for the Son of Man to be glorified.  24Very truly, I tell you, unless a grain of wheat falls into the earth and dies, it remains just a single grain; but if it dies, it bears much fruit.  25Those who love their life lose it, and those who hate their life in this world will keep it for eternal life.  26Whoever serves me must follow me, and where I am, there will my servant be also. Whoever serves me, the Father will honor.
27Now my soul is troubled. And what should I say — 'Father, save me from this hour'? No, it is for this reason that I have come to this hour.  28Father, glorify your name." Then a voice came from heaven, "I have glorified it, and I will glorify it again."  29The crowd standing there heard it and said that it was thunder. Others said, "An angel has spoken to him."  30Jesus answered, "This voice has come for your sake, not for mine.  31Now is the judgment of this world; now the ruler of this world will be driven out.  32And I, when I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all people to myself."  33He said this to indicate the kind of death he was to die.

v20 Ελληνες (ην ηνος) "Greeks" – perhaps Greek-speaking Jews, but Gentile “God-fearers” is more likely in that they come to Philip rather than Jesus, and then Philip checks with Andrew, and then Jesus becomes quite agitated (Gentiles approaching Jesus indicates both, temptation  and a signification that the hour of the cross was near). The point John is making is that they are people of non-Jewish birth.
των αναβαινοντων (αναβαινω) pres. part. "those who went up" – on the other hand mitigates for Greek Jews as this is often a technical term for going on pilgrimage rather than just going up from the low country to the highlands.

v21 προσηλθον (προσερχομαι) aor. "approached” - why Philip? Bethsaida is actually in Gaulanitis, not Galilee, so possibly it's because he is from Gentile territory, John obviously doesn't see the connection.
ηπωτων (επωταω) imperf. "asking" actually “they kept asking him" so pestered or nagged
ιδειν (οραω) aor. inf. "[we would like] to see" the infinitive is complementary, completing the sense of the verb "we will." Here in the sense of "interview/converse with." They have already “seen him” and now want to talk with him.

v23 εληλυθεν ηωρα "the hour has come" - the time of his dying is near.  So the coming of the Gentiles triggers this response which indicates (maybe) that his work with and in Israel is complete and now he must turn toward the lost. But this ministry is not directly his, rather a ministry of the Spirit through his disciples and the church, so it is time for him to leave - the hour has come. 
ινα  subj. "so that. an epexegetic clause explaining the "hour".
υιος του ανθρωπου "the Son of man" - John's usage of Daniel's "Son of Man", the 
is slightly different from the synoptics. John sees him as "the heavenly Man incarnate, whose glory is achieved through humiliation."
δοξασθη (δοξαζω) aor. pas. subj. "glorified" - For John Christ is glorified in his crucifixion. 

v24 εαν μη + subj. "unless" - introducing a negated conditional clause, 3rd. class, where the condition has the possibility of coming true.
ο κοκκος (ος) "a seed" – though there is a definite article, the phrase is most likely representative. It is possible that the definite article is used to indicate that the seed represents Christ. 
του σιτου (ος) gen. "of wheat" (edible grain). genitive modifying "seed". "In rabbinic literature, the kernel of wheat is often used as a symbol of the resurrection.
πεσων (πιπτω) aor. part. "falls" - participle modifying "kernel of wheat".

v25 ο φιλων pres. part. "the man who loves " – literally “the one fond of the life”. The parallel in Mark 8:35 has "the person who wishes to save their life will lose it". Here the "lose" is not future tense but present continuous, so losing/destroying right now. The synoptics, as well as John, use "soul" in the sense of a person's real living self as opposed to their fleshly self. 
ο μισων (μισεω) pres. part. "the man who hates" – literally the one hating. the man whose priorities are right has such an attitude of love for the things of God it makes the affairs of this life appear hateful by comparison. As with the Synoptics, there is little in the context to explain how this disdain works out in practice. Discipleship seems the obvious allusion, but when applied we immediately find ourselves in a works righteousness frame. 
φυλαξει (φυλλασσω) fut. "will keep it" - preserve.

v26 εαν + subj. "if" - a conditional clause, 3rd. class, where the condition has the possibility of coming true; "if, as may be the case, [anyone serves me], then [let him follow me."
διακονη/ (διακονεω) subj. "serves" What this service is to Christ John says is
ακολουθειτω (ακολουθεω) imp. "must follow" - following involves being where Christ is. 
τιμησει (τιμαω) fut. "will honor" - this honor is undefined, but may have to do with "vindication" of those persecuted for His sake. 

v27 η ψυχη (η) "heart" – literally “soul/life” so "Now comes my hour of heart-break"
τεταρακται (ταρασσω) perf. pas. "is troubled" – agitated, shocked, fearful, horror struck. at the reality of the cross. 
ειπω (λεγω) aor. subj. "[what] shall I say" - [a deliberative subjunctive. the verb is ` important here; Jesus doesn't say "what shall I choose?"
σωσον (σοζω) aor. imp. "save" - best understood in the terms of Jesus musing over what he should pray. Often treated as a question, but best understood as his prayer; "What am I to say? The removal of the cup, an alternate way to the cross, is a powerful temptation.
αλλα "no" – (but) a strong adversative, the he same construction can be seen in "lead us not into temptation αλλα but deliver us from evil".

v28 δοξασον (δοξαζω) aor. imp. "glorify" - the divine answer states that the Father's name has been glorified in the revelation of Jesus' life and will be further glorified in the lifting up of His servant. 

v29 ο ... εστως (ιστημι) perf. part. "that was there" - participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting "crowd".
ακουσας (ακουω) aor. part. "[and] heard it" - as above, although it may be treated as temporal; "when they heard the sound, the people standing by said it had …
γεγονεναι (γινομαι) perf. inf. "it had [thundered]" - the infinitive forms a dependent statement of direct speech expressing what the crowd said. They all heard something, a voice, thunder (which is used to express the power of God and often associated with theophany).
λαλαληκεν (λαλεω) perf. "[and angel] has spoken" - On a number of occasions in the Old Testament the Angel of the Lord speaks with Israel's great ones, cf. Gen.21:7, 22:11, 2King.1:15. Calvin noted that the crowd's failure to recognize God's voice (some think it is thunder, others think it is an angel) is paralleled by people's response to the gospel today; "may are as cold toward the teaching as if it came only from a mortal man, and others think God's Word to be a barbarous stammering, as if it were nothing but thunder."

v30 δι (δια) + acc. "[this voice was] for [your] benefit [not mine]" - expressing cause/reason; "on account of, for the sake of." Most commentators note the problem posed by the Father speaking for the benefit of the crowd, and then the crowd unable to identify the source of the voice. It was obviously only a word for those with ears to hear.

v31 του κοσμου (ος) gen. "[judgment] on the world" - the genitive is taken as verbal, objective, "now is the time that sentence is being passed upon this world",  or adjectival, possessive, "now is the world's judgment-day". 
εκβληθησεται (εκβαλλω) fut. pas. "will be cast [out]" - the Synoptics use the image of cast into outer darkness which may be what John has in mind. A number of commentators note that Jesus' pronouncement of judgment on the world and Satan doesn't seem to fit with the rest of the discourse. 

v32 καγω "and I" εαν + subj. "when" - if. a conditional clause, 3rd. class. The majority of these conditional clauses do not indicate the fulfilment of the condition, so it is assumed that the condition has the possibility of being fulfilled; "if, as may be the case, 
υψωθω (υψοω) aor. pas. subj. "I am lifted up" - purposely ambiguous. In one sense Christ is lifted up εκ "from (= separation) the earth as he is lifted up on the cross. So "lifted up" refers to crucifixion and death. In another sense Christ is lifted from the earth as one who is lifted up to heaven and enthroned, so "lifted up" as in glorification.
ελκυσω (ελκυω) fut. "I will draw" – literally drag- the purpose of Christ's "lifting up" is to draw 
παντας (πασ, πασα, παν) adj. "everyone" – perhaps “who are his flock" Universalism can be argued from this verse, but this is opposed elsewhere in the gospel. It might be a reference to “all” as in Gentiles and Jews without distinction.

v33 σημαινων (σημαινω) pres. part. "to signify" - participle is adverbial, expressing the intended purpose of Jesus' words in 32.
ποιω dat. pro. "the kind of [death]" - dative is instrumental.

αποθνησκειν (αποθνησκω) pres. inf. "[he was going] to die" -the infinitive is complementary, completing the sense of the verb "he was about. This phrase is repeated regarding Peter in chapter 21 of John

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