Greek Study John 15:9-17
v9 Jesus unpacks the parable of the vine,
ηγαπησα (αγαπαω) aor. "loved" - punctiliar aorist indicating action.
μεινατε (μεινω) aor. imp. "remain" aorist is ingressive, so "start abiding "Abide" is probably best understood as a faith-union with Christ: trusting him and his word,
v10 εαν + subj. "if" – A conditional clause, 3rd class, where the condition has the possibility of coming true, so "to obey my commands is to remain in my love", ie., obeying is abiding.
τηρησητε (τηρεω) aor. subj. "you obey"
τας εντολας (η) "commands" - repeated in v14, 15 and 21; not Law (νομοσ).
μενειτε (μενω) fut. "you will remain"
τετηρηκα (τηρεω) perf. "I have obeyed" - perfect tense indicating past action with ongoing consequences; referring to Christ's act of abiding in the Father's love in his act of love on the cross.
v11 λελαληκα (λαλεω) perf. "I have told"
ινα + subj. "so that " – a purpose clause. The word
η χαρα (h) "joy" has the same sense as "peace", again a relational term, with God. It is unlikely that the reference is to some existential feeling brought on by obedience or baptism, etc. It is also unlikely that Jesus is speaking about a future joy.
πληρωθη/ (πληροω) aor. pas. subj. "may be complete" - may be made full, complete. "So that you may be completely joyful".
v12 h entolh (h) "command" - now singular, only one command. Barrett suggests that the singular nature of the command is inclusive indicating that the love is toward both the divine and human - to love God and the neighbor. Love toward God entails belief in Christ (abiding) love toward neighbor is generalized in the sense of "as I have loved you", ie., Christ's example of self-giving.
v13 μειζονα (μεγας) adj. comp. "greater" - the use of the negative with the comparative produces a superlative so, "the greatest way to show love for friends is to die for them".
ταυτηςÄgen. pro. "than this" - The genitive is ablative, of comparison, as NIV. The reference is forward.
ινα + subj. "that" - a substantival clause, defining the nature of the love.
θη/ (τιθημι) aor. subj. "he lay down " – an idiomatic sense "to die".
υπερ + gen. "on behalf of” expressing benefit. The same preposition is used of Jesus giving up his life "for many" ikn Mk.14:24.
των φιλων "friends" - "friend' in English is not strong enough, so "for those he loves". In actual fact, Christ gives his life for enemies so even "those he loves" is misleading in the English.
v14 υμεις "you" - emphatic; "you (my disciples), not the world in general".
v15 δουλους (ος) "slaves” “servant” is too banal although slave is a bit harsh.
τι ποιει αυτου ο κυριος "his master's business" - what his Lord does. "A servant does not share his master's confidence".
φιλους adj. "[I have called you] friends" - a disciple is a follower, someone who serves, now they are friends and a friend is given more information than a servant – in the case the recipient of divine revelation.
παντα adj. "everything" – well not everything of the divine knowledge possessed by the exalted Christ, all the knowledge intended for and needed by humans to come into relationship with the Father through Jesus. John is big on the incarnation and its use and meaning to the individual and the church.
εγνωρισα (γνωριζω) aor. "I have made known" - aorist indicates a completed revelation. Brown makes the point that the divine revelation is complete and that the Spirit develops this knowledge, ie., he "gives greater insight into what Jesus has already revealed."
v16 εξελεξασθε (εκλεγομαι) aor. "choose" - The word "choose" does not necessarily refer to a call but to a situation. This is not a volunteer army, it is conscripted.
εθηκα (τιθημι) aor. "appointed" - the Greek word reflects the Hebrew word to "lay the hand on [the head of]", "to ordain"; or to “:set aside for a special task as in "commissioned". The word is also used of Jesus laying down his life for his friends. "If this is no accident, it emphasizes, indirectly, that it is the Lord's redemptive death which enables and empowers the disciples to undertake their work.
υπαγητε (υαγω) pres. subj. "go" - could reflect the apostolic commission.
οτι an + subj. "whatever [you ask]" - a relative conditional clause 3rd. class where the condition has the possibility of coming true; so "whatever, as the case may be, you may ask ..... then he may give to you." Given that the fruit of love is the promised consequence of an abiding faith, then we may properly pray for this fruit and rightly expect such a prayer to be answered.
εν τω ονοματι μου "in my name" - "name" encapsulates the substance of a person. δω (διδωμι) aor. subj. "will give" – an aorist subjunctive for the future tense.
v17 αγαπατε (αγαπαω) pres. subj. "love" - the passage concludes, as it began, with a call for mutual love. The present tense, being durative, indicates continued action; so "keep on loving one another".