v7 προσκαλειται (προσκαλεομαι) pres. "calling, summons” used often in Mark of Jesus calling disciples or others to himself.
αποστελλειν (αποστελλω) pres. inf. "he sent" The infinitive is complementary completing the verb "began", Jesus sends them as his qualified representatives.
δυο δυο "two by two" - an unusual form in Greek and therefore most likely influenced by the Aramaic. The disciples' going out in pairs may reflect custom or the law's requirement of two witnesses.
εδιδου (διδωμι) imperf. "gave" - the other synoptic gospels have an aorist tense. The imperfect may imply ongoing authority or reflect the presence of direct speech in the giving of authority. But if the imperfect implies they are given an ongoing authority why do they fail to cast out the demon in 9:18? Note the other 2 synoptic Gospels limit the apostolic mission only to Jews. The authority to cast out demons comes directly from Christ and sets the apostles apart as his emissaries. In fact exorcism is the most significant of the signs of the coming kingdom and serves as a demonstration of the gospel in action.
των πνευματων (α ατος) gen. "[impure] spirits"
v8 παρηγγειλεν (παραγγελλω) aor. "he commanded them”.
ινα + subj. "-" - that. a statement of direct speech revealing the content of his instruction.
αιρωσιν (αιρω) pres. subj. "take [nothing]" - Jesus' instruction is emphasized by using the present tense of the subjunctive verb.
εις + acc. "for [the journey]" - into here expressing purpose.
ει μη "except [a walking stick]" - an exceptive clause expressing a contrast by designating an exception. The purpose for a staff is unclear, perhaps defense more likely it is all part of the dress-code for a wandering prophet - it does had that Moses/Charlton Heston look about it!
πηραν (α) "[no] bag" although "no begging bag" is possible. The disciples must rely on the hospitality of the villages they visit.
μη εις την ζωνην χαλκον "no money in your belt" – lit. no copper in your girdle- the girdle served as a form of money belt. “Not a shirt on my back, not a penny to my name…”
v9 υποδεδεμενους (υποδεομαι) perf. mid. part. "wear [sandals]" – an imperatival so, "wear sandals but not two tunics" or "It’s alright to wear sandals".
μη ενδυσησθε (ενδυω) aor. subj. "[no extra shirt]" - do not put on, wear, be clothed in [two shirts]. Subjective of prohibition. The prohibition is that they do not put one "tunic" over another. This is a rather strange instruction, although it may serve to limit luxurious dress. Clearly the instructions concern the present mission, and are more related to culture than to poverty.
v10 οπου εαν + subj. "whenever [you enter]" - a temporal conditional clause 3rd. class where the condition has the possibility of coming true.
μενετε (μενω) imp. "stay"
εως αν + subj. "Until [you leave]" - an indefinite temporal clause - indicates future or habitual action.
εκειθεν adv. "that town" - adverb of place, referring to a locality.
v11 ος αν + subj. "if any" - whatever. a relative conditional clause, third class, where the condition has the possibility of coming true; "whatever, as may be the case, ..... then ....".
τοπος "place" - Possibly here "household". The point is, there will be some villages where all the households will reject the messengers.
δεξηται (δεχομαι) aor. subj. "will [not] welcome".
υμων gen. pro. "[listen to] you" - Genitive of direct object after the verb ακουω, "to hear."
εκπορευομενοι (εκπορευομαι) pres. part. "leave [that place]" - Attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the imperative verb "to shake off", and so imperative.
εκτιναξατε (εκτινασσω) aor. imp. "shake [the dust] off" - alluding here to the practice of pious Jews who carefully remove the dust of a heathen land before reentering Jewish territory - a gesture of disassociation.
εις μαρτυριον αυτοις "as a testimony against them" –either to the people themselves, or to God. If a sign to the people, the gesture may serve to prompt a change of heart, but it seems more likely a gesture "against", in the sense of judgment. Rejecting the messenger and their message is dangerous.
v12 εκηρυξαν (κηρυσσω) aor. "preached" - attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the verb "preached", as NIV. The disciples' preaching role was not mentioned in the initial charge, v7. It is obvious that proclamation is central to the mission.
ινα + subj. "that" - a dependent statement of indirect speech expressing what the disciples preached.
μετανοωσιν (μετανοεω) subj. "people should repent" - Mark reminds us of the expected response to the message which he has already summarized in 1:15. Repentance involves an acceptance of the dawning kingdom in Christ by turning toward the living God in Christ for mercy and forgiveness. Note, repentance is not a feeling of sorrow for past actions, although sorrow is certainly a byproduct.
v13 εξεβαλλον (εκβαλλω) imperf. "they drove out" - the imperfect is durative, implying an ongoing success in casting out demons. Jesus casts out a few, his disciples "many". The mission serves to extend Jesus' authority to the many. The casting out of demons, as noted above, serves as a powerful sign of the dawning kingdom. "If I by the finger of God cast out demons then the kingdom of God is come upon you."
ηλειφον (αλειφω) imperf. "anointed" - they were anointing. Most commentators see the anointing as symbolic rather than medicinal, even though olive oil was used as a cure-all. Yet, what was the point of the symbol, particularly as Jesus doesn't use oil himself? The only other reference to the use of oil in healing is in James 5:14, so we are at a bit of a loss to understand the point of its use here.
ελαιω (on) dat. “with oil” dative is instrumental, expressing means.
εθεραπευον (θεραπευω) imperf. "healed them" - they were treating, caring for, healing them.