Greek Study Mark 8:27-38
v27 Καισαρειας (α) gen. "[the villages] around Caesarea [Philippi]" genitive is idiomatic/locative; "the villages located in the region around the town of Caesarea Philippi." The genitive "of Philip" named after Philip the tetrarch, was added to distinguish the town from the coastal town of Caesarea.
επηρωτα (επερωταω) imperf. "he asked" – a disciple would normally ask questions of his Rabbi, not the other way around.
οι ανθρωποι (ος) "people" – men - used in a general sense, "people".
v28 οι .... λογεντες (λεγω) pres. part. "-" - the ones saying a substantive, redundant.
Ιωαννην τον βαπτιστην acc. "[some say] John the Baptist" - accusative infinitive construction is derived from an assumed infinitive verb as in v27, usually translated as if direct speech, "[they say] that you are John the Baptist". So also "Elijah". All three options are voiced by the people individually, so "some say John the Baptist and others say Elijah ..."
των προφητων (ης ου) gen. "[one] of the prophets" - adjectival, partitive.
v29 υμεις pro. "[what about] you" - emphatic by position and use in the Greek- "But you, who do you say I am?"
συ "you [are]" - emphatic ο χριστος "the Christ" - anointed one, - related verb to- be, ei\ is a historic present.
v30 επετιμησεν (επιτιμαω) aor. "Jesus warned [them]" - the word primarily means "to rebuke", here in the sense of "stern command".
v31 διδασκειν (διδασκω) pres. inf. "[and he began] to teach" - The infinitive is complementary, completing the sense of the verb "he began". This form of words is used to break from the proceeding episode and introduce a new point.
του ανθρωπου (ος) gen. "[Son] of man" - genitive is relational.
παθειν (πασχω) aor. act. inf. "suffer [many things]" - This infinitive, along with "to be rejected" and "to be killed" is substantival, and together serve as the subject of the verb "is necessary." Note Jesus' shift to "Son of Man" as the suffering one.
αποδοκιμασθηναι (αποδοκιμαζω) aor. pas. inf. "rejected" - infinitive, as above. Note that Mark lists the three groups involved in Jesus' humiliation, but Jesus' main opponents, the Pharisees, are not mentioned! This may imply that this particular saying was not part of Mark’s ‘narrative” – but rather part of the textus receptus.
αποκτανθηναι (αποκτεινω) aor. pas. inf. "he must be to be killed" - infinitive, as above. In a reading back of tradition, the word crucifixion would be used, but Mark is preserving the original sense of the words held in the apostolic oral tradition.
αναστηναι (ανιστημι) aor. pas. inf. "rise" - infinitive, as above. Since Son of Man is the subject, he verb is intransitive here; "rise". This is referred to as a theological passive, i.e. God does the raising. In the era of Marcus Borg this does NOT go without saying.
v32 ελαλει (λαλεω) imperf. "he spoke" - imperfective sense may be intended.
παρρησια (α) dat. "plainly" – frankly- dative is adverbial, expressing manner. Emphasizing that Jesus made a point of telling his disciples about his coming death and resurrection quite openly.
προσλαβομενος (προσλαμβανω) aor. part. "took [him] aside" – an attendant circumstance participle identifying action accompanying the infinitival phrase "began to rebuke." Why take Jesus aside? Is Peter embarrassed with what he is about to say or what Jesus said?
επιτιμαν (επιταμαω) inf. "to rebuke" - infinitive is complementary, completing the sense of the verb "began" often used of the casting out of a demon, so quite a strong phrase. Peter wants to set Jesus straight.
v33 επιστραφεις (επιστρεφω) aor. pas. part. "when [Jesus] turned [and looked at his disciples]" - possibly just an attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the main verb "rebuked" but descriptive of Jesus observing that the other disciples have most likely overheard Peter's words and therefore a public admonition is necessary.
επετιμησεν (επιτιμαω) aor. "he rebuked" - a public dressing down.
οπισω + gen. "[get] behind [me]" - here probably being used adverbially. Jesus is telling Peter to get back with the disciples and accept his authority.
σατανα (ας) "Satan" - harsh, although Peter has unwittingly promoted the temptation that the kingdom can come by means other than through suffering, a temptation Jesus constantly faces.
ου φρονεις (φρονεω) "you do not have in mind" idiom; “you’re not thinking straight”.
του θεου (ος) gen. "of God" - genitive is adjectival, possessive, "the things that belong to God", or ablative "that originate from God."
v34 προσκαλεσαμενος (προσκαλεω) aor. mid. part. "then he called [the crowd] to [him]" – summoned; participle is adverbial forming a temporal clause. It is important to note that Jesus calls the crowd to him while the disciples tag along. The point is that Jesus is now speaking to the crowd as well as the disciples. The implication is that Jesus is calling everyone to discipleship rather than to cross-bearing discipleship - the focus remains on Jesus and his suffering, not the suffering of disciples. If we would follow Christ we must be willing to accept a suffering messiah, a suffering we may have to share.
ακολουθειν (ακολουθεω) pres. inf. "[would] come" -[willed] to follow. The infinitive is complementary, completing the sense of the verb "willed".
οπισω + gen. "after [me]" - Spacial.
απαρνησασθω (απαρνεομαι) aor. imp. "he must deny [himself]" - renounce. The aorist, as with "take up", may specify the action and make it prior to the durative present "follow me." The word is commonly taken to mean self-denial but may just mean the shame of accepting a messiah that faces death, a messiah in conflict with the world. Such acceptance prompts confrontation but not necessarily renunciation of the world.
αρατω (αιρω) aor. imp. "take up" It is hard not to see Christ's cross in this image, although, at this point of time, the image would conjure up the cross-bearing criminal shamed in the presence of neighbors and friends. To this point Jesus has not said how he is to be "killed" and so rather than reflecting Jesus' suffering, the image may simply illustrate the shame involved in accepting a suffering messiah.
ακολουθειτω (ακολουθεω) pres. imp. "follow" - as a disciple.
v35 θελη (θελω) subj. "wishes" - the person who wants to protect their security and standing now, rather than accept Jesus, will find they have lost meaningful life.
σωσαι (σωζω) inf. "to save" - to heal.; the infinitive is complementary, completing the sense of the verb "wishes". Mark has "wants to save", Lk. "seeks to preserve", Matt. "finding". Mark emphasizes decision for unbelievers in radical terms: "to cling to the things of life, which humanity naturally values most, is a way to forfeit authentic life."
ψυξην (η) "life" – identity, the totality of one’s being. The Greek sense "soul" is not intended either here v36 or in 37. The Hebrew sense of the word means the “whole self”, the entirety of what it means to be a "human being."
απολεσει (απολλυμι) fut. ind. act. "will lose" – ruin or destroy.... i.e. whoever makes the decision to follow Jesus will grasp, live, experience real, authentic life.
του ευαγγελιου (ος) gen. "the gospel" – the demand for loyalty is to both Jesus and his message.
v36 ωφελει (ωφελεω) pres. "good is it for" - benefit.
ζημωθηναι (ζημιοω) inf. "forfeit" - confiscate.
την ψυχην (η) "life" - as above.
v37 δοι (διδωμι) aor. subj. "give" – a deliberative subjunctive.
ανταλλαγμα (α ατος) "in exchange" in redemption for.
της ψυχης (η) gen. "for [his] soul" - genitive is adverbial; "what could a person give that would be a fair recompense for their life?"
v38 επαισχυνθη/ (επαισχυνομαι) aor. pas. subj. "is ashamed" - in the sense of ashamed to acknowledge a relationship. The shame here is real, the social pressure to deny a suffering Messiah and his teachings.
τη μοιχαλιδι adj. "adulterous [and sinful generation]" - the religious meaning is "godless/apostate /disloyal".