On Tuesday morning the pastors of Lutheran Saints in Ministry gather in Fairborn Ohio to discuss the texts for Sunday.

These are the contributions that are brought to the table.

Wednesday, January 27, 2016

Luke 4:21-30 Greek Text

Luke 4:22-30

v22 εμαρτυρουν (μαρτυρεω) imperf. "witnessing, bearing testimony to” usually in the sense of "approved of” or “impressed with" except the question that follows shows skepticism so possibly "everyone noticed what he said".
εθαυμαζον (θουμαζω) imperf. "were amazed" - the imperfect indicating ongoing action. Amazement is an important initial response to the gospel; it is the kind of response a person makes when confronted with a theophany. From Luke's perspective, the people's response of amazement serves as a testimony that Isaiah's words were being fulfilled through Jesus.
της χαριτος (ις ιτος) gen. "the gracious [words]" - The word "grace" is translated in various ways here: "winning words", "the wonderful things he said", "beautiful words", "astonished by his eloquence", "charming words ", it is more likely that the gracious power of God salvation is evident in His words so the crowd is amazed by his message, not by his presentation.
ουχι "Isn't this [Joseph's son?]" In Greek the negation used when a question presumes a positive answer. This question evidences the skepticism of those who knew Jesus well, and the old adage applies here: familiarity breeds contempt.

v23 ειπεν (ειπον) aor. "[Jesus] said]" – his reply is an indirect response to the question of the people in 22. He doesn't address the insult directed toward him but instead addresses the substance of their doubt, is Jesus really something more than just Joseph's bastard son, and if he is, where's the evidence?
παντως adv. "doubtless” - expressing strong affirmation indicating Jesus is sure he understands what they are thinking. 
επειτε (ειπον) fut. "you will quote" – this is not a “prophetic future” tense, so it indicates what is on their minds in the present.
την παραβολην (η) "the proverb" – parable is the actual translation but here it is presented as a common saying, so it is actually a "proverb".
γενομενα (γινομαι) aor. part. "that you began" - an object clause of perception expressing what the people heard, namely, that Jesus had done miracles in Capernaum. They are skeptical of Jesus' credentials and Jesus knows it, nevertheless they are still keen on seeing some magic tricks!

v24 ουδεις "no [prophet is]" - a statement of truth and a common proverb δεκτος adj. "accepted" –a predicate nominative. Some scholars suggest a wordplay here in that Jesus has proclaimed the "acceptable" year of the Lord even as he, a prophet, is not "acceptable" to his people!

v25 επι αληθειας "upon this truth – an idiom, I assure you.
εν ταις ημεραις Ηλιου "in the days of Elijah" εκλεισθη (κλειω) aor. pas. "[the sky] was shut" – another idiom meaning a drought επι + acc. "throughout" την γην (η) "the earth" – i.e. everywhere in the land.

v26 ουδεμιαν adj. "no one” αυτων gen. pro. "to them" επεμφθη (πεμπω) aor. pas. "sent" a divine passive, so "God did not send Elijah to any of them."
ει μh "but instead [to a widow]" from Ζαρεπτα "Zerephath" a town North of Israel between Tyre and Sidon in Gentile territory!
v27 λεπροι adj. "[there were many] lepers
επι + gen. "in the [time of Elisha]" – temporal use 
ουδεις "not one" - no Israelite was touched by God's kindness ει μη "except one”
εκαθαρισθη (καθαριζω) aor. pas. "was healed" another divine passive identifying God as the agent of the healing. 

v28 επλησθησαν (πιμπλημι) aor. pas. "they were furious" - the genitive θυμου, "of anger" is adjectival so "furious". The strong reaction of the crowd indicates Jesus' words were provocative and the people display a fury similar to that portrayed by Luke in Acts at the stoning of Stephen. 
ακουντες (ακουω) pres. part. "when they heard [this]" – the word means to hear and understand, i.e. the hearing prompts this response.

v29 ανασταντες (ανιστημι) aor. Part. "they rose up" and εξεβαλον (εκβαλλω) aor. "cast [him] out“ our idiom would be “ran him out on a rail”.
εως "as far as” the οφρυος "edge” Nazareth was not built on the top of but on the side of a hill, so the crowd probably took Jesus to the lower gate.
του ορους (ος) gen. "of the mountain” εφ (επι) + gen. "on [which]" ω κοδομητο (οικοδομεω) pluperf. pas. "had been built”. Pluperfect is an unusual case that expresses a past state which is the result of a previous action. 
ωστε + inf. "in order" - This construction usually forms a consecutive clause expressing result, sometimes final or unfulfilled desire.
κατακρημνισαι (κατακρημνιζω) aor. inf. "to expel [him] down the slope” not necessarily thrown off a cliff, but more like an excommunication than an attempted execution. If the crowd truly regarded him as a false prophet they would have stoned him, so it is likely that they are just bundling him out of town by the lower gate to be rid of him.  The point here was humiliation.

v30 αυτος δε "but he" – an emphatic διελθων (διερχομαι) aor. part. "walked"- attendant circumstance participle expressing action so "was walking away". Some scholars propose a miracle here but there seems nothing miraculous about Jesus picking himself up, dusting himself off, staring the crowd down and walking straight through them to go on his way (it is not as dramatic as a miracle but it is but pretty cool none the less!)

επορευετο (πορευομαι) imperf. "going on his way" – the imperfect expressing an ongoing action. Jesus is still ‘going’ on His way!

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