On Tuesday morning the pastors of Lutheran Saints in Ministry gather in Fairborn Ohio to discuss the texts for Sunday.

These are the contributions that are brought to the table.

Tuesday, March 15, 2016

Luke 24:1-12, the Resurrection Story in Greek

Greek Study Easter: Luke 24:1-12

v1 δε  but introducing a contrast following the men in 23:56. The ladies observed the Sabbath "but" τη .. μια adj. "on the first day" των σαββατων (ον) gen. "of the Sabbath” an idiom meaning the “first day of the week”.
ορθρου βαθεως "very early in the morning" – literally “the deepest part of early morning”. Matthew says it happened during the “fourth watch” (i.e. 3 – 6  am). Combining the two traditions would mean sometime the middle of the night!  The women would have hastened to the tomb to anoint the body with spices as soon as Sabbath was ended, AFTER 6 pm Saturday, our time.  Not to get too technical, but all of the resurrection accounts point to a MUCH earlier time than we normally assume, as the beginning of the “third day” would have been sundown, Saturday.  Point being, there is FAER more evidence to support an early evening Easter vigil than a ‘sunrise” service.  Additionally, the “vigil” we keep is not a watch for the rising sun but for the rising Son! 
ηλθον (ερχομαι) "the women went" - Luke says who the "they" are in verse 10, 3women; Mark adds Salome but leaves out Luke's Joanna. Given that the tomb was guarded (Matthew) and that it was covered by a stone, how did these women intend to perform an anointing? It is likely attending to the body was permitted and the guards enlisted for help when moving the stone.

v2 τον λιθον (ος) "the stone" (not a stone!) The definite article may indicate that the stone was still well known to the gospel writers! 
αποκεκυλισμενον (αποκυλιω) perf. pas. part. "rolled away" this is a divine passive.

v4 και εγενετο (γινομαι) aor. and it happened that εν τω απορεισθαι (απορεω) inf. "while they were wondering" - uncertain, at a loss, perplexed. 
ανδρες δυο "two men" - Later Luke says they were angels. The gospel tradition is varied as to the number and where they appeared. 
αστραπτουση (αστραπτω) pres. part. "gleamed like lightning" a flashback to the transfiguration perhaps?
επεστησαν (εφιστημι) aor. "stood beside" again the entire scene is reminiscent of the Transfiguration, except this time it is for the benefit of the women, not the men.

v5 γενομενων (γινομαι) gen. aor. part. "in [their fright]" they κλινουσων (κλινω) gen. pres. part. "bowed down" – an attitude implying recognition of the divine presence. The present tense indicates their continued attitude while the angels spoke. 
τι τον ζωντα (ζαω) pres. part. pro. "why {seek} the living one" μετα + gen. "with [the dead]"

v6 ηγερθη (εγειρω) aor. pas. "he has risen" another divine passive; so he has been raised…” μνεσθετε ως "remember how [he told]" υμιν dat. pro. "you".
ετι ων τε Γαλιλαια pres. part. "while he was still [in] the Galilee" participle of the verb "to be" is adverbial, forming a temporal clause; the mention of Galilee has prompted numerous theories, but it may be nothing more than a factual statement.
v7 λεγων (λεγω) pres. part. saying. adverbial, temporal; "when he said".
οτι  that.  a dependent statement of indirect speech
του ανθρωπου (ος) gen. "[the Son] of Man" Daniel's vision.
παραδοθηναι (παραδιδωμι) aor. pas. inf. "be delivered/handed over” to α
μαρτωλων adj. "sinful [men]
αναστηραι (ανιστημι) aor. act. inf. "be raised again" - "raised" is active, allowing the possibility that Christ performs the action.
τη τριτη ημερα "on the third day" - the third day (day of salvation, Gen.22:4); this entire proclamation is a summary of the gospel, likely an early creed.
v8 των ρηματων (α ατος) gen. "[then they remembered his] words/deeds" an allusion back to Genesis?
v9 υποστρεφασαι (υποστρεφω) aor. part. "when they came back
απηγγειλαν (απαγγελλω) aor. "they told" – a word used of proclaiming the gospel.
ταυτα παντα "all these things" - these things all to τοις ενδεκα adj. "the eleven

v10 η Ιακωβου (ος) gen. "[Mary] the mother of James" - genitive is relational. The sense may be "mother of", but it could as easily be "sister” or "wife" - Ιωαννα (α) Joanna  Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of James are mentioned in Mark, but Mark has the third woman being Salome (mother of the sons of Zebedee) rather than Joanna, the wife of Herod's steward. 
αι λοιπαι συν αυταις "others with them" - unclear whether Luke intends us to read these others as others with the apostles, cf. v9 or other women with the three already named and the grammar doesn't help, given that two third person plural verbs, "it was" and "told" do not help. John only mentions Mary Magdalene, but even Mary reporting the resurrection to the apostles uses the plural "we don't know where they have laid him!" 

v11 ηπιστουν (απιστεω) imperf. "they disbelieved" - expressing continued action; belief not in the religious sense but in the sense that the women's account was not trustworthy. ενωπιον + gen. "because [their words]" - usually special as in "before, in front of", but here meaning "in the opinion/judgment of", BAGD.
ληπος (ος) "nonsense" babbling – this is a hapax legomenon.
v12 (This verse is not found in some texts so it may be a later addition.) αναστας
(ανιστημι)  aor. part. "got up [and ran]
παρακυψας (παρακυπτω) aor. "bending over" - describing a straining of the neck to get a look at the contents of the tomb.
βλεπει (βλεπω) pres. "he saw" – the historic present tense.
τα οθονια (ον) "the strips of linen" - the Jews did not mummify their dead but used a linen sheet or two, loosely wrapped around a body that had been washed with perfumed oil. It was these sheets that Peter saw.
μονα adj. "lying by themselves" - object complement, implying that there is something about the way the sheets are placed by themselves. It is better read the adjective attributively such that it limits by ascribing a quality to the noun "sheets"; they are "alone" - only the sheets are in the grave; Jesus' body is not there. Of course, there is something about the scene that prompts a reaction other than loathing, in Peter's case, "wonder". There is obviously no evidence of grave robbers. John's description of the grave makes particular note of the head towel folded by itself. The scene is one of order, as if someone just got out of bed. 
θαυμαζων (θαυμαζω) aor. part. "[he went away] wondering" participle is adverbial, expressing the manner of his going. Amazement is always viewed in the NT as a response short of faith, although, given the circumstances, it is not an unreasonable response. Mark, in particular, makes much of the response of "being amazed." For Mark, "amazement" is the first step toward faith, but sadly, it is the only step most people ever take. 
προς + acc. "to [himself]" - [his own house]. Some think that this preposition goes with απηλθεν, "departed", rather than θαυμαζων, "wondered". So "departed to", presumably with the sense "to his own home".

το γεγονος (γινομαι) perf. part. "what had happened" - once again this entre verse looks like an early church creedal statement.

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