Greek Study Luke 10:1-20
v1 ανεδειξεν (αναδεικνυμι) aor. "[the Lord] appointed" - to a particular function.
εβδομηκοντα adj. "seventy " there is a variant, 72, which could be original. The MT giving 70 as the number of the nations while the LXX gives the number as 72. ετερους "others" - Presumably seventy other missionaries, over and above the twelve. ανα δυε "two by two" - in twos. The another variant exists ανα δυο δυο, "two by two". probably no difference as both refer to the fact that in Jewish culture the testimony of two witnesses settles a matter.
προ προσωπου ουτου "before his face”
ερχεσθαι (ερχομαι) pres. inf. "[was about] to go" - complementary, completing the sense of the verb "was about".
v2 This independent saying is also found in Matthew 9:37 and is usually taken as encouraging evangelistic enterprise. But it is more likely that the saying is referring to the nearness of the eschatological day of judgment, such that the heralding of this day must be undertaken urgently.
μεν ..... δε "[the harvest] is plentiful [but]" - an adversative comparative construction; "on the one hand .... but on the other hand ....."
πολυς adj. "is plentiful" - possibly "great" or even "awesome". The day of harvest is often used to image the eschatological day of judgment. This day entails the ingathering of the elect and the destruction of the wicked.
αλιγοι adj "are few" - Predicate adjective.
δεηθητε (δεομαι) aor. pas. imp. "ask" – a word often used of prayer.
του κυριου (ος) gen. "the Lord" - ablative, expressing source.
του θερισμου (ος) gen. "of the harvest" – actually "the Lord over the harvest." Obviously a reference to God who will enact eschatological judgment.
v3 A second independent saying appropriate for a mission charge. The "wolves" are not identified but the image serves to warn of opposition and .
υπαγετε (υπαγω) pres. imp. "go" ιδου "behold”
ως "like" - a comparison and idiom " this is hazardous work. You are like lambs εν μεσω (ος) "in the middle of” λυκων (ος) gen. "wolves".
v4 μη βασταζετε (βασταζω) pres. imp. "do not take" How does not bringing sandals work, even Boy Scouts bring a second pair of shoes on a long hike! μηδενα ... ασπασησθε (ασπαζομαι) aor. subj. "do not greet [anyone]" - the urgency of the mission is usually given as reason for this instruction, but the phrase is best taken here to mean "to pay respect" so Jesus is saying, "don't go visiting your relatives while on mission" or "don't stop to chat and visit" Gehazi's mission for Elisha, 2Kgs.4:29 may also be the reference; a prohibition of greeting serves as a prophetic sign.
κατα οδοσ "on the road" - along the way. Remember that Luke, in Acts, reports that the first name for the Christian faith was ο οδοσ, the way
v5 ην ... αν + subj. "[into] whatever” οικιαν, "house"; a conditional clause 3rd. class where the condition has the possibility of coming true; "if, as may be the case, you enter any house, then first say ...." Note how in Matthew these instructions are preceded by the instruction to search out a worthy home to stay at, 10:11 whereas Luke's account has the disciples enter the village and accept the hospitality offered by the first home, staying there until they leave the village.
πρωτον λεγετε "first say" ειρηνη (η) "peace" - Is this just a greeting? It was certainly a common one, but it is more than likely that the words are intended as a blessing.
τω οικω/(ος) "to [this] house" - Dative of advantage; "peace be upon this house."
v6 ειρηνης (η) "[a man] of peace attributive, limiting by describing "son". This descriptor probably rests on the common Aramaic use for someone "worthy of peace" i.e. a person open to the gospel.
επαναπαησεται (επαναπαυομαι) fut. pas. "will rest" - The choice of this word possibly alludes to the spirit of Moses falling upon the seventy, Num.11:25f, and of the spirit of Elijah upon Elisha, 2King.2:15.
ει δε μη γε "but if not" The idea is that the blessing of peace is forfeited and so returns for reallocation.
v7 αυτη pro. "[stay in] that [house]" - personal pronoun takes the force of an emphatic; "in that very house stay."
του μισθου (ος) gen. "the worker is” αξιος ”worthy [of his wages]".
μη μεταβαινετε (μεταβαινω) pres. imp. "do not move around" - The present tense is iterative expressing the idea of going from one place to another repeatedly. Obviously addressing the temptation to find better accommodation.
v8 ην αν + subj. "when” δεχωνται (δεομαι) pres. mid. subj. "[and] are welcomed" Luke's crafting of the tradition at this point causes problems since we have moved from a household welcoming the disciples to a village welcoming disciples, a village can’t set food before people.
τα παρατιθεμενα (παρατιθημι) pres. pas. part. "what is set before [you]. Within the context of a mission to Israel, food will range from the basics of a poor family to the strict food requirements in the home of a Pharisee.
v9 αυτη pro. "[heal the sick] there" - a proclamation concerning the inauguration of the messianic age in both word and sign. The signs are those foretold by the prophets; the sick freed of disease is one.
αυτοις "[tell] them" ηγγικεν (εγγιζω) perf. "[the kingdom of God] is near” palpable or " bursting in upon you".
v10 ην ... αν + subj. "when [you enter a town]" εξελθοντες (εξερχομαι) aor. part. "go into” τας πλατειας "the streets" likely the town's "marketplace" or "town square".
v11 τον κολληθεντα (κολλαω) aor. part. "that sticks" απομασσομεθα (απομασσω) pres. "we wipe off". Most commentators take the view that this gesture replicates the action of a pious Jew who shakes the dust off his feet when leaving Gentile territory. To repeat this action outside a Jewish town implies that they are not part of the true Israel.
εις μαρτυριον επ αυτους "for a testimony against them", another sign indicating where the community is heading unless it repents.
πλην τουτο γινωσκετε "know this".
v16 Another independent saying concludes Luke's account of Jesus' charge to the seventy
ο ακουων (ακουω) pres. part. the one listening compared to "the one rejecting" and "the one sent".
v17 λεγοντες (λεγω) pres. part. "and said" τα δαιμονια (ον) "the demons" υποτασσεται (υϑποτασσω) pres. pas. "submit" - an important word drawn from Ps.8:6 and referring to "the subordination of the hostile heavenly powers to the εν τω ονοματι σου "in your name" - exorcisms were performed with the personal authority of Jesus given to the missioners in advance. He equips the called.
v18 εθεωρουν (θεωρεω) imperf. "I saw [Satan]" imperfect is often used of a visionary process, and certainly Jesus' seeing is not actual
πεσοντα (πιπτω) aor. part. "fall" - the aorist is used to express time contemporaneous with Jesus' seeing. ως "like [lightning]" - a comparative; not like the brightness but rather sudden and swift.l
v19 την εξουσιαν "authority" - note the presence of an article so it is likely the intended sense is "I have given you the power".
του πατειν (πατεω) pres. inf. "to trample" επανω + gen. "on" - the image is not so much of possessing the power to resist the bite of serpents but to fulfil the promise of Genesis that the serpent’s head would be crushed under foot.
ου μη + subj. "nothing [will harm you]" – a subjunctive of emphatic negation. definitely not by any means will "αδικηση (αδικεω) aor. subj. "harm" come.
v20 μη χαιρετε (χαιρω) pres. imp. "do not rejoice" - The negative and positive imperatives "do not rejoice" and "rejoice" establish a preference rather than two specific commands; "Don't make too much of the fact that these powers and mindsets are unable to resist obeying you; rather, find your fulfillment in the fact that your real happiness is in knowing that your names εγγεγραπται (εγγραφω) perf. pas. "are written".