On Tuesday morning the pastors of Lutheran Saints in Ministry gather in Fairborn Ohio to discuss the texts for Sunday.

These are the contributions that are brought to the table.

Tuesday, July 5, 2016

Luke 10: The parable of the Good Samaritan. Greek Text Studies

Luke 10:25-37

v25 νομικος (ος) "[an expert in] the law" - trained in its interpretation and application.
εκπειραζων (εκπειραζω) pres. par. "to test [Jesus]" - testing, tempting. The participle here "in order to test him", or "stood up and tested him" in the sense of putting a test question to him, not tempt - but the question is not hostile.
ποιησας (ποιεω) aor. part. "[what] must I do" - participle is adverbial, expressing means; "I will inherit eternal life by doing what?".
ζωην αιωνιον "eternal life" - "life in the land of Israel" as part of the covenantal promise common to the Old Testament, but here is it the eschatological new age is likely - "life" in all its fullness.

v26 γεγραπται (γραφω) perf. pas. "[has been] written" - passive perfect is commonly used of scripture, i.e. what has been is still.
αναγινωσκεις (αναγινωσκω) pres. "do you read it" - "what does your reading tell you?"

v27 αποκριθεις (αποκρινομαι) aor. pas. part. "he answered" - a common phrase.
αγαπησεις (αγαπαω) fut. "love" – the rare imperative future tense.
σου gen. pro. "your [God]" εκ + gen. "with [all your heart]" – or from expressing source.
καρδιας (α) "heart" - the seat of intellect, not emotion.
ως "[love your neighbor] as [yourself]" - a comparison, Danker translates this "the neighbor is to be trusted with the love we have for ourselves".

v28 ποιει (ποιεω) pres. imp. "do [this]" - present durative tense expressing continued action. 
ζηση/ (ζαω) fut. "you will live".

v29 ο ... θελων (θελω) pres. part. "he wanted" - participle functions as a substantive, "the man who wished to justify himself, said."
δικαιωσαι (δικαιοω) aor. inf. "to justify [himself]" - infinitive is complementary, completing the verbal sense of "wanting". This provides the motive behind the question, but even so the motive is unclear. The sense may be "to vindicate", unlikely that such a highly charged theological word would be used so lightly, so better "wishing to put himself in the right", i.e. he wants to establish a recognition of covenant inclusion for himself by making sure he had clearly defined those to whom he has an obligation.

v30 υπολαβων (υπολαμβανω) aor. part. "in reply" - having replied. 
κατεβαινεν (καταβαινω) imperf. "was going down" - expressing the action of traveling; "going down" here expresses movement from a high place to a low place.
απο + gen. "from [Jerusalem]" - Expressing separation.
περιεπεσεν (περιπιπτω) aor. "fell" - was surrounded by λησταις (ης ου) dat. "[robbers" – brigands (anti-Roman zealots) 
εκδουσαντες (εκδυω) aor. part. "they stripped [him]" αφεντες (αφιημι) aor. part. "leaving [him half dead]" – litrally “unconscious in a pool of his own blood".

v31 κατα συγκυριαν "happened" - An idomatic expression meaning "by chance".
κατεβαινεν (καταβαινω) imperf. "to be going down" – see above. 
εν τη οδω "the [same] road/way” an idomatic expression meaning "on the road" – here a road notorious for its hazard.
ιδων (οραω) aor. part. "when he saw [the man]".
αντιπαρηλθεν (αντιπαρερχομαι) aor. "he passed by on the other side" - aorist expresses punctiliar action – being only a story, the reason for this action is usually taken as fear of the robbers or fear of defilement.

v32 ομοιως δε και "so likewise" γενομενος (γινομαι) aor. part. “by chance” – evidence of an oral source for this story, as it is formulaic and idiomatic.
ελθων (ερχομαι) aor. part. "when he came [to the place and saw him] participle, as with ιδων, "having seen", is temporal.

v33 οδευων (οδευω) pres. part. "as he traveled" - adjectival, attributive, limiting "a Samaritan", "who was travelling".
ιδων (ειδον) aor. part. " he sawεσπλαγχνισθη (εσπλαγχνιζομαι) aor. pas. "he took pity on him". It is right here Jesus answer the question posed above, “what must I do?”

v34 προσελθων (προσερχομαι) aor. part. "he went to him" action accompanying the verb. 
επιχεων (επιχεω) pres. part. "pouring on [oil and wine]" – adverbial expressing the manner of attending to his wounds (olive oil was used on wounds as a liniment, while wine (alcohol) was used as an antiseptic.)
επιβιβασας (επιβιβαζω) aor. part. "then he put [the man on his own donkey]
πανδοχειον (ον) "an inn" - a public inn - hapax legomenon.
επεμεληθη (επιμελεομαι) aor. pas. "took care of" - cared for. The picture presented in the parable is of the Samaritan taking the man to the inn, staying the night with him to care for him (rather than just dumping him off) and paying for ongoing care the next day – i.e. the Samaritan did all that he could, even exceeding the intent of the Law.

v35 επι την αυριον "the next day" - an unusual phrase literally "towards the morrow."
εκβαλων (εκβαλλω) aor. part. "he took out"
τω πανδοχει (υς εως) "to the innkeeper
αυτου gen. pro. "him" επιμεληθητι, "take care of"
ο τι αν + subj. "if any extra expense " construction forms an indefinite relative conditional clause 3rd. class, where the condition has the possibility of coming true.
εγω "I" - Emphatic 

v36 τις "which" - an interrogative pronoun serves to introduce a question.
τουτων των τριων gen. "of these three" δοκει (δοκεω) pres. "[do you] think"  
γεγονεναι (γινομαι) perf. inf. "became" πλησιον adv. + gen. "a neighbor"  or neighborly του εμπεσοντος gen. aor. part. "to the man who fell.

v37 ο ποιησας (ποιεω) aor. part. "the one who had" το ελεος met + gen. "mercy on [him]" A nSemitic idiomatic prepositional phrase takes the sense "to show mercy to."

συ " YOU emphatic ποιει, "go and do" takes the present durative tense, so the command is "you yourself adopt the Samaritan's way of behaving" and once again answers the original question “what must I do?”  This is not a judgment on degree on intent, but a specific on action, “Act more like the Samaritan, less like the others”- might be one moral of this story. And, I might add, this is not meant as a commentary on wither salvation or righteousness.  Also notice that while Jesus implicitly praises the Samaritan, he does not do so explicitly, nor does he judge the actions or intents of the others.  Each act is left to speak for itself.  Perhaps we should do the same? 

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