Greek Study Luke 12:32-40
32“Do not be afraid, little flock, for it is your Father’s good pleasure to give you the kingdom. 33Sell your possessions, and give alms. Make purses for yourselves that do not wear out, an unfailing treasure in heaven, where no thief comes near and no moth destroys. 34For where your treasure is, there your heart will be also. 35“Be dressed for action and have your lamps lit; 36be like those who are waiting for their master to return from the wedding banquet, so that they may open the door for him as soon as he comes and knocks. 37Blessed are those slaves whom the master finds alert when he comes; truly I tell you, he will fasten his belt and have them sit down to eat, and he will come and serve them.38If he comes during the middle of the night, or near dawn, and finds them so, blessed are those slaves. 39“But know this: if the owner of the house had known at what hour the thief was coming, he would not have let his house be broken into. 40You also must be ready, for the Son of Man is coming at an unexpected hour.”
v32 μη φοβου Pres mid passive be not afraid μικρον ποιμνιον Nom Singular little flock
οτι ευδοκησεν Aor Act 3person singular because it delights ο πατηρ Nom Sg m the father υμων δουναι Aor Act 2nd singular (past actions with future implication) to give to you την βασιλειαν the Kingdom
v33 πωλησατε Aor Act 2 Pl [you] sell an imperative τα υπαρχοντα υμων Pres Act Acc Pl your belongings kai δοτε and give ελεημοσυνην acc. Sg f alms
ποιησατε Aor Act 2 Pl make εαυτοισ pf 3 Dat Pl for yourselves βαλαντια Acc Pl purses παλαιουμενα Pres Pas Acc Pl that can age
ανεκλειπτον Acc Sg given over to stealing
θησαυρον Acc Sg treasure εν τοισ ουρανοισ Dat Pl m in the heavens
οπου κλεπτησ Nom Sg where thieves ουκ are not εγγιζει Pres Act 3 Sg able to draw near ουδε Adv nor σησ Nom Sg a moth διαφθειρει Pres Act 3 Sg can cause decay.
v34 οπου γαρ Adv for where εστιν Pres υμων ο θησαυροσ Nom Sg m your treasure
εκει καρδια υμων Nom Sg f there your heart εσται fut. 3 per S shall be (compare to Matthew 6:19-21 – this saying is set in the context of the Sermon on the Mount whereas in Luke it is set in the context of teaching disciples.)
v35 A teaching parable unique to Luke, begins with the exhortation keep your pants on and your lights burning. The security of authentic life is found in the kingdom of God not the things of this world. It is essential to retain this focus and not be distracted by "worldly mammon", such that when the master returns we are caught with our pants down and find ourselves out in the cold, as it were.
εστωσαν (ειμι) pres. imp. let Present imperative conveys a sense of constant readiness.
περιεζωσμεναι perf. pas. part. "[dressed] ready for action", present imperative verb to-be, εστωσαν, forms a periphrastic perfect construction; i.e. a command to pull up the main garment and tuck it into your belt – to get ready for action and remain that way.
υμων gen. pro. "[have] your" - Emphatic by position in the Gk. οι λυξνοι lamps καιομενοι (καιω) pas. part. "burning" – a paraphrastic imperative "being girded for action, also keep your lamps lit".
v36 A parable peculiar to Luke, although Mark 13:33-37 expresses a similar idea using different words. The message is simple; "since the Parousia may take place at any time, the disciple must be on the alert" which according to Danker means the sense of constantly having faith in Christ.
και and - possibly epexegetic, serving to introduce an illustration which draws out the sense of being ready to serve. The imperative verb "to be" of v37 may still apply, so "you be like men."
ανθρωποις (ος) dat. "men" - Dative of direct object after the adjective, ομοιοι, "like", takes a dative of persons.
προσδεχομενοις (προσδεχομαι) pres. part. "waiting for" - participle is adjectival, limiting "men".
εαυτων gen. reflex pro. "their [lord] genitive is adjectival, possibly possessive, but better of subordination; "the master over him."
ποτε + subj. "to [return]" whenever adverb, with the subjunctive, forms an indefinite temporal clause. The adverb is interrogative indicating that it introduces an independent statement of indirect speech expressing what the men are asking. An interesting use of the verb which means to "set free" or "to loose".
των γαμων (ος) "a wedding banquet" - marriage.
ινα + subj. "so that" - a purpose clause, "in order that", or hypothetical result, "so that."
ελθοντος (ερχομαι) aor. part. gen. "when he comes" - genitive absolute participle serving to form a temporal clause.
αυτω dat. pro. "[open the door] for him".
v37 μακαριοι adj. "it will be blessed (fortunate/happy) - position is emphatic, as is its concluding position serves as a conclusion for what is a single sentence. Those who are ready for the Lord's return and who have maintained their faith in Christ are fortunate, for they will receive the blessings of the kingdom.
γρηγορουντας (γρηγορεω) part. "them watching". The participle functions as an object complement to the direct object ους, whose", of the verb
ευρησει, "will find ready” ελθων (ερχομαι) aor. part. "when he comes".
ην λεγω υμιν "I tell you the truth" - υμιν serves as a dative of indirect object.
περιζωσεται (περιζωννυμι) fut. mid. "he will dress himself" - gird. The middle voice carries a reflective sense, literally, wrap around himself a towel-like garment to enable him to serve, possibly wash feet of guests prior to the meal, but can also be an idiom meaning, to equip one's self with knowledge of the truth!
ανακλινει (ανακλινω) fut. "will have [them] recline at the table"
v38 μαραριοι adj. "[it will be] good [for those servants]"
ουτως adv. "ready" καν (και αν) + subj. "even if" - a conditional clause, 3rd. class, φυλακη/ (η) "watch" - the three watch system used by the Jews is in mind, meaning between 9pm and 3am. So, "when we least expect it."
v39 ει + pluperf. .... αν + aor. "if ......" - a second class conditional clause, contrary to fact, with the unusual use of the pluperfect verb in the protasis instead of an aorist; "if, as is not the case, ....... then [he would not have .....]"
ηδει (οιδα) pluperf. "had known" - A new illustrative parable now has the owner of the house facing the break-in of a thief, but not knowing when the break-in will occur. A similar illustration is found in Matthew. Being prepared is the only sensible response.
ποια ωρα dat. "at what hour" - what kind of hour, a dative of time.
ερχεται (ερχομαι) "coming" - present tense carrying a future sense.
διορυχθηναι (διορυσσω) aor. pas. inf. "be broken into" - dug into - infinitive is complementary, completing the sense of the verb "have allowed". "Digging", in the sense of digging through the mud walls of the house.
v40 ετοιμοι adj. "be ready" – a predicate adjective.
του ανθρωπου (ος) gen. "[the Son] of Man" Jesus' favored messianic title
η ωρα "at an hour" - Dative of time.
ου δοκειτε pres. "do not expect him"