Greek Study Matthew 1:18-25
In this passage Matthew recounts the story of the birth of Jesus, and this as the result of a supernatural act of God. Jesus is not only the son of David, but he is also the Son of God. In 1:18-25 Matthew deals with Jesus' origin and name. The focus is on Joseph; Mary remains incidental to the story. He relates how Joseph comes to marry Mary, someone already pregnant, and how through this marriage Jesus is included in the Davidic line. The story explains the origins of Jesus and how he was named. The ‘virgin birth’ is accepted by Matthew without question.
1:18 ουτως adv. "how" expressing manner. The sense is general not pointing to the event of the birth itself.
Μαριας (α) gen. "Mary" in apposition to "mother".
τω/ Ιωσηφ dat. "to Joseph" – a dative of direct object after the verb μνηστευθεισης, "being engaged." Betrothal was as good as marriage in Jewish society. Mary, having gotten pregnant apart from Joseph, could suffer stoning had not Joseph acted on her behalf.
μνηστευθεισης (μνηστευω) gen. aor. pas. part. "was pledged to be married". a genitive absolute construction and temporal clause, so "when his mother Mary was betrothed to Joseph".
πριν η "before" - another temporal clause indicating action of the verb συνελθειν (συνερχομαι) aor. inf. "came together" so; "just before their marriage".
ευρεθη (ευρισκω) aor. pas. "she was found" – or "she discovered she was " εν γαστρι εχουσα " with child" – an idiomatic phrase; literally "having in the womb" or as we would say "pregnant".
εκ + gen. "through" - the intended sense may be "from, out of",. Luke handles this fact with a little more sensitivity which likely reveals more of a cultural difference between Luke’s and Matthew’s communities than anything theological.
v19 ων (ειμι) pres. part. "because ...... was" - The participle of the verb to-be is adverbial and
best taken to introduce a causal clause, as NIV.
ο ανηρ (ηρ ρος) "[her] husband" - in apposition to "Joseph". As noted above, this is as good as being married.
δικαιος adj. "a righteous/law abiding" man. Joseph was someone who did what was right, a man who complies with the law. The fact that the law required him to divorce her (before two witnesses) and didn't indicates he is merciful as well as “just”. These are OT divine qualities. Joseph here is acting as an agent for Yahweh.
μη θελων (θελω) pres. part. "he did not want" δειγατισαι (δειγματιζω) aor. inf. "public disgrace" - he was unwilling to bring shame upon her.
απολυσαι (απολυω) aor. inf. "to divorce/destroy" – a dependent statement of perception expressing what Joseph had in mind not to do.
λαθρα adv. "quietly" - in-house "privately" is closer than "quietly".
v20 ενθυμηθεντος (ενθυνομαι) aor. part. "after he had considered " – as he was
reflecting; the genitive absolute participial construction forms a temporal clause. Possibly as a direct statement expressing completed action; "he had resolved or made up his mind to do this".
κυριου (ος) gen. "[an angel] of the Lord" - possessive, "the Lord's angel" or ablative "an angel from the Lord."
εφανη (φαινομαι) aor. "appeared".
κατα "in [a dream]" - expressing means; a phrase used by Matthew for divine revelation.
λεγων (λεγω) pres. part. "and said" – angels are messengers so they speak.
μη φοβηθης (φοβεομαι) aor. subj. "do not be afraid" and there is is again, one of the central messages of bothteh Old and New Testaments. "Fear" in the sense of "do not hesitate", "do not shrink from" παραλαβειν (παραλαμβανω) inf. "to take [Mary] home" to lead her into his household. Joseph need not fear of taking Mary as his wife, this referring to the marriage custom of a man taking a women into his home as a sign of their union.
γεννηθεν (γενναω) aor. pas. part. "what is conceived/generated/begun [in her]" - the participle is adjectival, "for the child which is conceived in her."
v21 τεξεται (τικτω) fut. "she will give birth"
καλεσεις (καλεω) sing. fut. "you are to give to/call" an imperatival future. "You should give him the name Jesus." The Hebrew name "Jesus" means "Yahweh of salvation", in Greek rendered "Joshua". In Hebrew, the word "Jesus" actually sounds like "he will save". σωσει (σωζω) fut. "will save/rescue/set free" or for the whole clause, "redeem/forgive".
τωϖ αμαρτιων (α) "sins" - "miss the mark", used in the LXX and NT for offences against God.
v22 ολον (ος) "all/whole/entire/complete” γεγονεν (γινομαι) perf. "took place".
ινα + subj. "so that" - a purpose clause;
πληρωθη/ (πληροω) aor. subj. "fulfill/complete”; the promises made by Yahweh through the prophets.
το ρηθεν (λεγω) aor. pas. part. "the thing/matter being spoken [by Lord]”.
δια + gen. "through" - by means of the prophets.
λεγοντος (λεγω) gen. pres. part. "-" - saying. The participle may be treated as adverbial, temporal, genitive in agreement with "prophet"; "when he said."
v23 η παρθενος (ος) "the virgin" - young woman who has not participated in sexual intercourse. (The Greek word may be used of a sexually active young woman, but is normally used of a virgin while the Hebrew word used in Isaiah 7:14 simply means a young woman of marriageable age. Regardless Isaiah is speaking of a birth which serves as a sign to the people.
εν γραστπι εξει "will conceive" - having in the womb (see v18 for this idiomatic phrase).
καλεσουσιν (καλεω) sing. fut. "they will call [him]" - they will call [the name of him]. Isaiah has the singular "ye will call", indicating Matthew's shift to the fellowship of believers who affirm the name of Jesus.
Εμμανουηλ − in Hebrew this means "prosperity", comes from God being with a person. εστιν μεθερμηνευομενον (μεθερμηνευω) pres. pas. part. "[which] means" - [which] having been interpreted, translated. An idomatic paraphrastic present construction, "[which] being translated means"; "for that name means God is with us", Barclay.
μεθ (μετα) + gen. "with" - Expressing association. The sense is either: In Jesus "God is with us", or his name is "God with us.
v24 δε but transitional, so "now".
εγερθεις (εγειρω) pas. part. "when [Joseph] arose/woke up".
ως "as/like” a comparative; "he did as the angel of the Lord commanded."
αυτου gen. pro. "he [took] Mary [home as his wife]" - [he took the wife] of him. The genitive is adjectival, relational.
v25 ουκ εγινωσκεν (γινωσκω) imperf. "he had no union with/did not consummate the
marriage/did not know” a euphemism for sexual relations.
εως + gen. "until" rendered "before", although the sense is probably "until after she gave birth." This phrase is concerned with the period before the birth and not what happened after (i.e. it does NOT promote the perpetual virginity of Mary).
εκαλεσεν (καλεω) aor. "he gave [him the name]"