Greek Study for Luke 24:13-35
v13 εν τη μια των σαββατων "the first day of the week". Luke is describing the day as the day following the Sabbath, or the eighth day, rather than the first day of the week. It is the day which ushers in a new creation because it is the day during which Jesus rose from the dead. Luke touches on this imagery in 9:28. It was an imagery developed by the Church Fathers
Εμμαους "Emmaus" - This is the only mention of this village by Luke.
v14 ωμιλουν (ομιλεω) imperf. "[they] were talking" the imperfect is typically used for speech since it is an ongoing action (durative).
των συμβεβηκοτων (συμβαινω) perf. part. "[everything] that had happened" – an idiom, read “current events”.
v15 εν τω ομιλειν (ομιλεω) pres. inf. "as they talked [and discussed]" -"during their talking and" συζητειν (συζητεω) pres. inf. "discussed" – they argued, debated.
αυτος "[Jesus] himself" –a variant; the pronoun is emphatic. Evans notes that this resurrection appearance of Jesus is distinctive in that Jesus enters the scene as a normal person; and the disciples do not recognize him.
εγγισας (ενγιζω) aor. part. "drew near – was at hand, within reach" - Attendant circumstance so temporal. Jesus also was coming from Jerusalem and caught up to them.
v16 εκρατουντο (κρατεω) Imperf. pas. "they were kept from" a divine passive i.e. the disciples were restrained by divine power from recognizing Jesus. It is also possible that the language of sight is used to align with faith that it is their own doubts and fears that have blinded them. The use of this word by Luke is intentional given that it is necessary to explain why two disciples, who travelled with Jesus in the past were unable to recognize him in the present.
του μη επιγνωναι (επιγινωσκω) aor. inf. "recognizing" –a cognitive disconnect;
v17 αντιβαλλετε (αντιβαλλω) pres. "are you discussing" – literally “what words are you tossing around, debating?”
σκυθρωποι adj. "their faces downcast" – an idiom, they were sullen.
v18 ονοματι (α ατος) dat. "[one] named, Κλεοπας "Cleopas" – the Semitic name is Clopas, (Mary’s husband?) with the Greek (femaile) version being Cleopatros. Tradition has it that he was Jesus' uncle, brother of Joseph and his son Simeon took over the leadership of the Jerusalem church after the death of James (Eusebius).
παροικεις (παροικεω) pres. "are you [only] a visitor [to Jerusalem]” The the question rests on the meaning of this word. Most opt for "visitor", but the question could be sarcastic with the word meaning "stranger", i.e. Have you been living under a rock?”
v19 ποια "what things" – αυτοις dat. pro. "he asked"
περι "about [the things] Jesus of Ναζαρηνου (ος) "Nazareth" – Luke loves to serve up details, place and people names as a way of inviting others to check the story out for themselves.
προφητης (ης ουτ) "a prophet" - apposition to ανηρ, "a man". The two disciples understand Jesus was the long promised messianic prophet, like Moses, who would serve as Israel's liberator. Luke is not critical of their understanding of Jesus as a prophet, the problem lie in failing to understand it was necessary for the messiah to suffer and die and in failing to take Jesus' promise seriously that he would rise on the third day.
v20 παρεδωκαν (παραδιδωμι) aor. "handed [him] over" θανατου (ος) gen. "to death". We have the beginning of a liturgical response to the question “who was this Jesus” – a sort of proto creed.
v21 ημεις ηλπιζομεν (ελπιζω) emphatic imperfect “We had personally hoped"
ο μελλων (μελλω) pres. part. "the one who was going"
λυτρουσθαι (λυτροω) pres. inf. "to redeem [Israel]" – more proto creedal language.
v22 εξεστησαν (εξιστημι) aor. "disturbed [us]" the word carries a touch of awe, supposing a pre-faith response but given the debate, "disturbed" may be better.
v23 μη ευρουσαι (ευρισκω) aor. part. "they didn't find [his body]" – an adverbial participle forming a temporal clause. This states a fact, "some women disturbed us when, after they went to the tomb early in the morning, they were unable to find his body."
εωρακεναι (οραω) perf. inf. "that they had seen" - a vision of angels." Luke now tells us that what the women saw maybe pointing to a non-Lukan source for this tradition (as the Luke accouint has two ‘men’).. The words of the angels are also different.
ζην (ζαω) pres. inf. "[he] was alive" not risen (ανεστασισ) - the angels say "he lives."
v24 τινες "some" - only Peter who goes to the tomb to confirm the account; Luke seems aware of the Johannine tradition of both Peter and John visiting the tomb!
v25 ανοητοι adj. "foolish" read "stupid", some scholars suggest "obtuse" as better. I leave it to you, would Jesus say “How obtuse” or ‘How stupid of you!”
βραδεις adj. "slow" τη καρδια (a) dat. "of heart" a Semitism? For Hebrews the heart that was the seat of the intellect. For Greeks, the heart was the seat of emotion. Here Luke seems to the intellectual assertion. Slow of heart” is an idiom for “not the sharpest knife in the drawer…” you get the picture.
του πιστευειν (πιστευω) pres. inf. "to have faith" – an epexegetic i.e. it explains the "foolish" and "slow of heart" to whit; "How stupid and slow you are to have faith."
v27 αρξομενος (αρχω) aor. part. "beginning" - expresses the manner of explanation; "beginning with Moses and proceeding to all the prophets he explained".
v28 προσεποιησατο (προσποιεω) "Jesus acted as if" - sometimes translated “Jesus appeared to be going further", or the more bluntly "he pretended to go further.”
v29 παρεβιασαντο (παραβιαζομαι) aor. "they urged [him] strongly/pressed him.
λεγοντες μεινον μεθ aor. imp. "saying stay with us” a plaintive cry.
προς εσπεραν εστιν" it is nearly evening" - it is toward evening (late afternoon).
κεκλικεν ηδη η ημερα "the day is almost over" – idiom; the day has tipped.
v30 Luke now records "how Jesus was recognized by them when he broke the bread" (v35), v30-32. The head of a home would normally say the grace over the meal, but Jesus takes the lead which may imply they are staying at an inn. In acting as host, Jesus is recognized. Luke would have us see this recognition as divine initiative, supported by a miraculous disappearance. It seems Luke wants to make the point that the Christians of his day were able to have the living Lord made know to them in a manner analogous to the Emmaus experience at the eucharist.
εν τω κατακλιθηναι (κατακλινω) aor. inf. "when [he] was at the table"
λαβων (λαμβανω) aor. part. "he took [the bread]" –
κλασας (κλαω) aor. part. "he broke [it]" - all of this action seems a bit to formulaic to be referring to an “agape feast”, it is too close to the actions Paul describes in Corinthians.
v31 διηνοιχθησαν (διανοιγω) aor. pas. "[their eyes] were opened" – another theological passive, i.e. God does the opening.
αφαντος adj. "[he] disappeared]" - There are a number of post resurrection appearances, but this is the only time Jesus disappears without a word.
v32 καιομενη η∴ν "were [not our hearts] burning" – a "burning mind" is awkward so it may be an idiom, “weren't we excited..."
v33 ανασταντες (ανιστημι) aor. part. "they got up" αυτη τη ωρα dat. "that very hour" It may have been too late for Jesus to travel, but mot for them to return to Jerusalem!
ηθροισμενους (αθροιζω) perf. pas. part. "assembled together" - object of the verb "they found” the eleven “[who were] gathered there with their companions".
v34 οντως "it is true!" ηγερθη (εγαιρω) aor. pas. "He has risen"
Here it is expressed in the terms of a recounted kerygma rather than a more grammatically correct expression of the words used at the time of speaking. Luke's language is similar to first Corinthians 15:3-5a. (again)
Σιμωνι (ων) dat. "[and has appeared] to Simon" Why "Simon" rather than "Peter"? Only here among the synoptics is an appearance to Peter mentioned. Paul was aware of this tradition, as recorded (again) in first Corinthians 15 Are we dealing, once again, of those things that are “passed on as of first importance”?