On Tuesday morning the pastors of Lutheran Saints in Ministry gather in Fairborn Ohio to discuss the texts for Sunday.

These are the contributions that are brought to the table.

Wednesday, June 6, 2018

Greek Study Mark 3:20-35

Greek Study Mark 3:20-35

v20 ερχεται (ερχομαι) pres. "then [(Jesus)] entered" -  Historic present.
παλιν adv. "again" indicating continued enthusiasm of the crowd in response to Jesus' ministry, cf.3:7 in the same locality (Capernaum?) the same house (Peter’s?).
ωστε + inf. "so that" - a consecutive clause expressing result; "with the result that."
αυτους pro. "he and his disciples" - they. Accusative subject of the infinitive.
μη ..... μηδε "not ever" – a double negative, an idiom, "it was impossible for them to eat a meal".
φαγειν (φαγω) aor. inf. "to eat" - to eat [bread]. The infinitive is complementary, completing the sense of the verb "they were [not] able"; the "they" is obviously "Jesus and his disciples" - "to eat bread" is an Aramaic expression taking food of any sort, 

v21 ακουσαντες (ακουω) aor. part. "when [his family] heard about this".
οι παρ αυτου "his family" - those from beside him. Classical οι παρα + dat. = "those of someone's household". In Koine Gk. it is, as here, a genitive and is translated "the ones from beside him" i.e. his family. This phrase may just refer to Jesus' family friends, or relatives, or even immediate family; " mother and brothers." We know Jesus' kin did not at first believe in his messiahship. It seems likely Mark is being deliberately vague so they might even be fair-weather disciples.
κρατησαι (κρατεω) aor. inf. "to take charge [of him]" - the infinitive is adverbial introducing a purpose clause; "they came out [from their home to the house Jesus was staying at] in order to lay hold of/restrain him." Possibly "to calm him down".
ελεγον (λεγω) imperf. "they were saying” an impersonal plural where this was said of Jesus and which rumor family members had heard about; "rumor had it…"
εξεστη (εξιστημι) aor. "he was crazy" – literlaly stood outside = was confused, had lost his senses. The aorist is treated as dramatic, expressing a present state. "He must be in the grip of some kind of emotional frenzy",  or possibly with the more sinister connotation, "he has a demon and is insane", cf. John 10:20. This would better fit with the comment of the religious authorities, v22.

v22 οι γραμματεις (ευς εως) "the teachers of the law" - the scribes. The word was originally used of those who simply copied the scriptures, but by this time they were regarded as authorized interpreters, teaches of the scriptures, so "experts in the law". That they came from Jerusalem gives them even greater authority.
οι .... καταβαντες (καταβαινω) aor. part. "who came down" - participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting "scribes", "the scribes who had come down {from Jerusalem)} one comes down or goes up to J. 
ελεγον (λεγω) imperf. "said
Βεελζεβουλ "Beelzebub" - Aramaic: "lord of the temple/lord of the flies " from the Syrian original "Lord Ekron", 2King.1:2. It would seem that "Beelzebub" and "the prince of demons", both refer to "Satan" although possibly "the prince of demons" refers to a superior evil spirit. This may imply that Beelzebub also is a title for a superior demon- prince, particularly as there is no reference to Satan being called Beelzebub (so Gundry).
των δαιμονιων (ον) gen. "[the prince] of demons" - genitive is adjectival of subordination; "by the ruler over the demons."
v23 προσκαλεσαμενος (προσκαλεω) aor. part. "so [Jesus] called [them]" - summoned. 
ελεγεν (λεγω) imperf. "he began to speak" - but Mark may intend a durative action, "he was speaking to them in…
παραβολαις (η) dat. "parables" - The word here means “allegories”, eg. the parable of the sower; riddle (marsal), eg. "the kingdom of heaven is like unto ..." or illustrations, eg. The parable of the tenants.
εκβαλλειν (εκβαλλω) pres. inf. "drive out" infinitive is complementary, completing the sense of the verb "is able"; "how is Satan able to eject Satan?"
σατανας "Satan" - "the Adversary."

v24 βασιλεια (α) "a kingdom" – i.e. a political entity.
εφ (επι) + acc. "against" - over, ‘upon itself’, here with the sense "against itself.
σταθηναι (ιστημι) aor. pas. inf. "[cannot] stand".

v25 οικια (α) - "a house" - used in the sense of "family" or "household".
v26 εφ (επι) + acc. "opposes" - [Satan stood up] against [himself]. Spacial.
εμερισθη (μεριζω) aor. pas. "is divided" – literally “split against himself".
στηναι (ιστημι) aor. inf. "[he cannot] stand" – as above.
τελος εχει "his end has come" – an idiom, "He is done for" or better, "he has come to the end of his influence and power.”
v27 There is, of course, another way of reading Jesus' miraculous healings and exorcisms. "If God is to rule, the 'strong man' must be bound. Jesus is not only the herald of the dawning kingdom, but in some sense its agent, the 'stronger one'.
αλλα "BUT in fact", here introducing a counter argument; "on the contrary".
ου .... ουδεις ..... μη "no one ...... unless" - no one ...... [is] not [able] (cannot) ..... unless another double negative; the piling up of negations stresses the point that it is impossible to set Satan's captives free without first disabling the eon who has bound them.
εισελθων (εισερχομαι) aor. part. "[can] enter" - [is not able] having entered. The participle may be adverbial, temporal, possibly attendant circumstance, expressing action accompanying the complementary infinitive "to plunder", "no one is able to enter into the house of a strong man and to plunder his property unless ...."
του ισχυρου gen. adj. "the strong man's [house]"
εαν μη + subj. "unless/without [first]" - Introducing an exceptive clause expressing a contrast by designation an exception.
δηση  (δεω) aor. subj. "[he] bind up" - The binding of Satan is an interesting sub-issue. As far as the NT is concerned Satan is "bound/defeated" while at the same time strolling around like a roaring lion – the now/not yet reality of the kingdom.
τον ισχυρον gen. adj. "the strong man" – another Aramaic form, although Mark does have Satan in mind he may be referring to an earthly ruler, (Nero/Anitpas?)
διαρπασει (διαρπαζω) fut. "[then] he can rob [the house]" - note the stress on actuality

v28 υμιν "[I tell] you [the truth]" – a dative of indirect object. Serving to introduce a statement that is firm and binding; "I give you solemn assurance of this".
παντα adj. "all" - all [the sins, even the blasphemies whatever they may blaspheme, will be forgiven the sons of men]. Luke has πας ος, "everyone who". Proba
αι βλασφημιαι (α) "blasphemies / [every] slander they utter" - often in reference to God; but it is possible a more general sense is intended, so "slander" as such. 
τοις υιοις των ανθρωπων "of men " a Semitic phrase like this, which denotes humanity in general, reminds us how easily Jesus' self designation "the Son of Man" was missed as a messianic title.
αφεθησεται (αφιημι) fut. "will be forgiven " - The subject is what is forgiven, although "all he sins ..... and all the blasphemies ..... are pardonable". 
οσα εαν + subj. as if = whatever, an indefinite clause. 

v29 Scribal tradition states that "The Holy One, blessed be he, pardons everything else, but on profanation of the Name he takes vengeance immediately." Much soul-searching surrounds this passage, but the context defines clearly what "blasphemy against the Holy Spirit" is, namely, a blind determination to deny the Holy Spirit's revelation in the person and work of Christ, a setting oneself against Christ. The scribes slander God by calling Christ an agent of Beelzebub. Yet, the issue is not that Jesus was slandered as such, but rather that the slander evidences a rejection of Christ as messiah. To reject the kingdom of God in the person of Jesus, to reject his words and signs, is to reject God's free offer of salvation. Such rejection brings condemnation and eternal loss. Of course, this rejection is in the terms of a fixed attitude of mind, so Calvin. Jesus' family thought he had a demon and for some time they did not accept that he was Israel's messiah, yet they came to belief and so were not "guilty of an eternal sin." So, the "unpardonable sin" is the "culpable rejection of, or refusal to recognize, God's redemptive activity", Guelich, a rejection of God's comprehensive offer of amnesty and forgiveness, so Grundmann, cf. Ex.23:30-31.
ος ... αν + subj. "whoever" - Introducing a relative conditional clause, 3rd. class, where the condition has the possibility of coming true; "whoever, as the case may be, slanders the Holy Spirit, then they will never be forgiven."
εις τον αιωνα "[will never be forgiven]" – literally into the age - idiomatic Semitic phrase, "forever"
αμαρτηματος (α) gen. "of [an eternal] sin" - genitive is adjectival, denoting the crime of which the person is ενοχος,  answerable/guilty.
Αιωνιου gen. adj. "eternal" - variants exist with "eternal judgment", given that "eternal sin" is a rather strange concept.. Possibly "he is absolutely certain to hear himself condemned to Hell when he stands before God, in judgment, at the end of his life" so "sin with an eternal consequence"s.

v30 πνευμα ακαρθαρτον "an evil/unclean spirit"a slightly more specific negative assessment of Jesus' ministry.

v31 Mark now refocuses on Jesus' family, this time their desire to "take charge of him", v31- 35. Mark has compared the disciples with both the scribes and Jesus' relatives. Those who consider that Jesus is an agent of the Devil face the prospect of becoming the eternally unforgiven; the disciples, on the other hand, who do God's will, face the joyous prospect of membership in Jesus family, the family of God.
ερχεται (ερχομαι) pres. "arrived" - [his mother and brothers]  a historic/narrative p resent tense; often the present tense is used to commence a new narrative discourse.
στηκοντες (ιστημι) pres. part. "standing" - Best classified as an attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the verb απεστειλαν, "they sent"; so "they stood outside and sent someone 
εξω adv. "outside" - adverb of place. Jesus is inside a home, although it is not stated.
καλουντες (καλεω) pres. part. "to call [him]" participle is probably adverbial, final, expressing purpose; "they sent someone to him in order to call him." "They sent a message to him (in order) to ask him to come out and see them".

v32 λεγουσιν (λεγω) pres. "they told" - in the sense that the message is passed until it reaches Jesus.
και αι αδελφαο σου "and your sisters" - The shorter reading without this variant is to be preferred. 

v33 αποκριθεις (αποκρινομαι) aor. pas. part. "[he asked]" – a Semitic idiom, redundant, but technically classified as attendant circumstance. The passive is middle-passive, where the passive voice expresses a Gk. middle sense involving intercommunication.

v34 αμενος (περιβλεπω) aor. part. "Then he looked at" - having looked about. The participle is adverbial,best taken as temporal, as NIV.
τους .... καθημενους (καθημαι) pres. part. "those seated" i.e. students…
κυκλω adv. "in a circle"

v35 "While Mark does not prescribe or legally define what 'doing the will of God' means, the macro-narrative makes it clear that it must be related to repentance in response to Jesus' proclamation of the kingdom". 
του θεου (ος) gen. "God's [will]

ουτος  - this one [is my brother/sister/mother] in dropping the definite articles, Mark "adds emphasis to the new relationships by stressing their quality."

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