Greek Study Mark 8:27-38
v27 Καισαρειας (α) gen. "[the villages] around Caesarea [Philippi]" genitive is idiomatic "the villages located in the region around the town of Caesarea Philippi." The genitive "of Philip" named after Philip the tetrarch, was added to distinguish it from the coastal town of Caesarea (called Maritime).
επηρωτα (επερωταω) imperf. "he asked" – a disciple would normally ask questions of his Rabbi, not the other way around.
οι ανθρωποι (ος) "people" – men - used in a general sense, "people".
v28 οι...λογεντες (λεγω) pres. part. "-" - the ones (some are) saying, redundant.
Ιωαννην τον βαπτιστην acc. "[some say] John the Baptist"
των προφητων (ης ου) gen. "[one] of the prophets"
v29 υμεις pro. "[what about] you" - emphatic by position in Greek- But you, who do you?
συ "you [are]" - emphatic ο χριστος "the Christ" - an historic present.
v30 επετιμησεν (επιτιμαω) aor. "Jesus warned [them]" - the word means "to rebuke".
v31 διδασκειν (διδασκω) pres. inf. "[and he began] to teach" - This form of words is used to break from the proceeding episode and introduce a new point.
παθειν (πασχω) aor. act. inf. "suffer[many things]" - This infinitive, along with "to be rejected" and "to be killed" together serve as the subject of the verb "is necessary."
αποδοκιμασθηναι (αποδοκιμαζω) aor. pas. inf. "rejected" as above. Note Mark lists three groups involved in Jesus' humiliation, but the Pharisees, are not mentioned! This may imply that this particular saying was not part of Mark’s ‘narrative” – but rather part of the textus receptus.
αποκτανθηναι (αποκτεινω) aor. pas. inf. "he must be to be killed". In a reading back of tradition, the word crucifixion would be used, but Mark is preserving the original sense from the apostolic oral tradition.
αναστηναι (ανιστημι) aor. pas. inf. "rise" - a theological passive, i.e. God raises.
v32 ελαλει (λαλεω) imperf. "he spoke" παρρησια (α) dat. "plainly" –Jesus told his disciples about his coming death and resurrection openly.
προσλαβομενος (προσλαμβανω) aor. part. "took [him] aside" Why take Jesus aside?
επιτιμαν (επιταμαω) inf. "to rebuke" often used of the casting out of a demon, so quite a strong phrase, i.e. Peter wants to set Jesus straight.
v33 επιστραφεις (επιστρεφω) aor. pas. part. "when [Jesus] turned [and looked at his disciples]" - a public statement requires a public admonition.
επετιμησεν (επιτιμαω) aor. "he rebuked"
οπισω + gen. "[get] behind [me]" - Jesus is telling Peter to accept his authority.
σατανα (ας) "Satan" - harsh, although Peter has unwittingly promoted the temptation that the kingdom can come by means other than suffering, a temptation Jesus faces.
ου φρονεις (φρονεω) "you do not have in mind" idiom; “you’re not thinking straight”.
του θεου (ος) gen. "of God" - genitive is adjectival, possessive, "the things that belong t o God", or ablative "that originate from God."
v34 προσκαλεσαμενος (προσκαλεω) aor. mid. part. "then he called [the crowd] to [him]" – summoned. It is important to note Jesus calls the crowd to him while the disciples tag along. The point is Jesus is now speaking to the crowd AND the disciples; Jesus is calling everyone to discipleship rather than discipleship - the focus remains on Jesus and his suffering, not the suffering of disciples.
ακολουθειν (ακολουθεω) pres. inf. "[would] come" -[willed] to follow. The infinitive is complementary, completing the sense of the verb "willed".
οπισω + gen. "after [me]" - Spacial.
απαρνησασθω (απαρνεομαι) aor. imp. "he must deny [himself]" - renounce. The aorist, as with "take up", is prior to the durative present "follow me." The word is commonly taken to mean self-denial but may mean the shame of accepting a suffering messiah as such acceptance prompts confrontation with (not renunciation of) the world.
αρατω (αιρω) aor. imp. "take up" It is hard not to see the cross in this, although here such an image would conjure up a criminal shamed in the presence of the public. To this point Jesus has not said how he will be "killed" so rather than reflecting his suffering, the image may simply illustrate the shame involved in accepting a suffering messiah.
ακολουθειτω (ακολουθεω) pres. imp. "follow" as a disciple.
v35 θελη (θελω) subj. "wishes" - the person who wants to protect their standing will find they have lost meaning
σωσαι (σωζω) inf. "save" lit. heal.
ψυξην (η) "life" – identity, the Greek sense "soul" is not intended either here or elsewhere . The Hebrew sense of the word means “whole self”, or "human being."
απολεσει (απολλυμι) fut. ind. act. "will lose" – ruin or destroy.... i.e. whoever makes the decision to follow Jesus will grasp, live, experience real, authentic life.
του ευαγγελιου (ος) gen. "the gospel" – the demand for loyalty is to both Jesus and his message.
v36 ωφελει (ωφελεω) pres. "good is it for" - benefit.
ζημωθηναι (ζημιοω) inf. "forfeit" - confiscate.
την ψυχην (η) "life" - as above.
v37 δοι (διδωμι) aor. subj. "give" – a deliberative subjunctive.
ανταλλαγμα (α ατος) "in exchange" in redemption for.
της ψυχης (η) gen. "for [his] soul" - genitive is adverbial; "what could a person give that would be a fair recompense for their life?"
v38 επαισχυνθη/ (επαισχυνομαι) aor. pas. subj. "is ashamed" - in the sense of ashamed to acknowledge a relationship. The shame here is real, the social pressure to deny a suffering Messiah and his teachings.
τη μοιχαλιδι adj. "adulterous [and sinful generation]" - the religious meaning is "godless/apostate /disloyal".