Greek Study John 10:22-30
v22 εγενετο τοτε "then came" - the variant τοτε usually indicates a close connection with the preceding passage.
τα εγκαινια "the feast of dedication" - the festival that celebrated the Maccabean victory over the Syrians in 164BC and the rededication of the Temple after Antiochus IV.
εν τοις Ιεροσολυμοις (α) "at Jerusalem" - the article particularizes, but is unnecessary. It is likely that the Feast of Dedication could be held in regional centers also which necessitates mention of Jerusalem.
χειμων ην "it was winter" - or possibly "wintery weather".
v23 περιεπατει (περιπατεω) imperf. "walking" - imperfect is durative expressing ongoing, rather than customary actions.
του Σολομωνος "Solomon's [Colonnade]" According to Josephus, the eastern outer court of the Temple – a colonnade that surrounded the temple proper - the eastern one was dedicated to Solomon.
v24 εκυκλωσαν (κυκλοω) aor. "[The Jews] encircled/surrounded implying a threatening press.
ελεγον (λεγω) imperf. "saying" - a durative imperfect which implies ongoing questioning, so they gave him the “second degree”.
εως ποτε "how long" αιρεις (αιρω) pres. "will you keep [us in suspense?]" literally “make us hold our breath”? While the implication is suspense, some commentators note in modern Greek the sense is to "provoke or annoy" which better fits the situation given that the Jews are unlikely to be asking for a clear declaration of who he is so that they can believe in him. The authorities want something to use against him.
ο χριστος "the Christ" παρρησια/ (α) dat. "[tell us] plainly" dative expresses the manner of the speaking. The motive of the request is unclear. The Jews may be frustrated Jesus has not clearly stated who he is OR they may have already decided he is not the Christ and want evidence to use against him.
v25 ειπον aor. "I did tell [you]" - Jesus was open with the Samaritan woman but there is little evidence of him speaking plainly to the crowds in other circumstances.
και "but [you do not believe]" - adversative.
τα εργα (ον) "the works"
εν τω ονοματι του πατρος μου "in my Father's name" "In the name of" often with the sense " with or under the authority of".
μαρτυρει (μαρτυρεω) pres. sing. "testify" the verb is in the singular while the subject is in the plural – points to an oral source.
v26 αλλα "but" ου πιστευετε (πιστευω) pres. "[you] do not believe".
οτι "because causal. εκ + gen. "[you are not]" preposition expresses source.
των εμων "of my [sheep]"
v27 ακουουσιν (ακουω) pres. "listen to [my voice]" children of faith give heed to Christ's words and are known by Christ indwelling Spirit.
v28 καγω "I" αυτοις dat. pro. "[give] to them" ου μη + subj. "never [perish]" a double negative with subjunctive idiom = never.
εις τον αιωνα "into the age” idio = forever
v29 ο προ who μοι dat. pro. "to me" παντων gen. adj. "than all.
αρπαζειν (αρπαζω) pres. inf. "[can] snatch" - infinitive is complementary, completing the sense of the verb "is able."
v30 εν neut. "[I and the Father are] one" - Jesus is talking about a unity of action. When it comes to the protection of the flock, both the Father and Son are in agreement. This verse was central to the great Trinitarian debates and was interpreted differently by all. For those who argued God is one and the persons of the trinity are but manifestations of that oneness, "one" was their big line. The Arians went to the other extreme and argued that the text reveals a moral unity between the Father and the Son, but nothing more.