v19 τη μια σαββατων "on the first day [of the week]" – literally “on the evening of that same Sunday".
κεκλεισμενων (κλαιω) gen. perf. pas. part. "locked"
εστη εις το μεσον “[Jesus came and] stood into the middle”.
υμιν dat. pro."[peace to] you" – a dative of interest or advantage; an idiom "I pray that it may be well for you".
v20 εχαρησαν (χαιρω) aor. pas. "they were thrilled with joy".
ιδοντες (ειδον) aor. part. "having seen” at this point it was the mere seeing that caused joy.
αποσταλκεν (αποστελλω) perf. "has sent" indicating the action is completed with ongoing ramifications.
καγω πεμπω pres. "so also I am sending" present
v22 ειπων (λεγω) aor. part. "[and] with saying that" .
ενεφυσησεν (εμφυσαω) aor. "he breathed" – a hapax legomenon, possibly reflecting the divine breath in the creation of life, Gen.2:7. This is a clash with Luke's chronology regarding Pentecost. Although would assume that this is the appropriate moment for the empowering of the disciples for their ministry of forgiveness though the proclamation of the gospel.
λαβετε (λαμβανω) aor. imp. "receive" possibly "welcome" makes more sense.
v23 αν "if" - a conditional clause, 3rd class, where the condition stated in the "if" clause (protasis) has the probability of becoming a reality. In English the use of "if" conveys doubt, not so in the Greek. so "whenever you forgive anyone ..."
αφητε (αφιημι) aor. subj. "you forgive/release” an emphatic The authority is given to the apostles to release people from the consequences of their sin.
τινων gen. pro. "anyone's" sins αφεωνται (αφιημι) perf. pas. "are forgiven” a proleptic perfect tense,
κρατητε (κρατεω) pres. subj. "do not forgive/retain”.
v24 ο λεγομενος (λεγω) pres. pas. part. "called/known as” Διδψμυσ - the twin” an intimate nickname.
v25 ελεγον (λεγω) imperf. "[the other disciples] told" - the imperfect may express ongoing action, "they persistently said"- note the play in this story between the words “see” and “say”
εωρακαμεν (οραω) perf. "we have seen" - They, as with Mary, have seen the Lord – interesting at they feel their word should be sufficient for Thomas who has NOT seen the Lord.
εαν ημ + subj. "unless" - a negated conditional clause, 3rd class, where the condition has the possibility of becoming true.
των ηλων (ος) gen. "[the] nail [marks]" - [the marks, image, pattern] of the nails..
βαλω (βαλλω) aor. subj. "put/throw/cast [my hand]" – a strong word, so "thrust my hand into his side."
ου μη + subj. "[I will] not [believe it]" – a double negative with the subjunctive produces a subjunctive of emphatic negation, "I will never believe".
v26 μεθ ημερας "a week later" – literally, after eight days – which means the following Sunday.
κεκλεισμενων (λκειω) gen. perf. part. "though [the doors] were locked" – a temporal clause; "When the doors were locked, Jesus came and stood among them", Barclay.
εις μεσον "among them" - into [the middle].
υμιν dat. pro. "[peace] be with you".
The repetition in the Greek of this verse and verse 19 is reflective of a liturgical story; one designed for use in worship and also designed to convey the story orally from one generation to the next
v27 τω Θωμα (α ας) "[he said] to Thomas" - Dative of indirect object; whereas the first message is to everyone, this one is for Thomas alone; .
μη γινου απιστος "stop doubting/do not be unfaithful”. a present imperative.
v28 ο κυριος (ος) "My Lord" – a nominative taken as a vocative; "you are the one who rules over me, and you are the God whom I worship", as Thomas had been “outside” of faith (relationship) these words reestablish both the relationship and the context of it, Jesus is once again “rabbi” – his Lord, but also God.
v29 μακαριοι adj. "blessed" – but here I woul argue for the more prosaic happy – as it refers to a state of joy in response to benefiting from God's favor; "happy are those who find faith οι μη ιδοντες (ειδον) aor. part. "having not seen [me]".
v30 σημεια (ον) "miraculous signs" ενωπιον + gen. "in the presence of” that is within their sight!
v31 γεγραπται (γραφω) perf. pas. "written" indicating completion of the writing. – this declares John's purpose for writing the book; what follows are several ‘ινα’ clauses:.
ινα + οτι subj. "so that [you may believe]" a purpose clause.
ινα + οτι subj. "so that a purpose clause,
πιστευοντες (πιστευω) pres. part. "in/through faith" - modal, expressing manner.
εν τω ονοματι αυτου "in his name" – a sense of incorporative union, i.e. that God's gift of eternal life is found in relationship (faith) with his Son ("name" = person) "The name" carries the sense "the authority of", so " through the authority of Jesus"; or “under his authority”. This reflects John’s theology of the universal power of Christ to save, “no one comes to the Father except through me” (14:6).