Greek Study Mark 1:21-28
v21 εισπορευονται (εισπορευομαι) pres. "they went" - historical present.
τοις σαββασιν (ον ου) dat. "when the Sabbath came" - dative of time, the plural form is a reflection of the Aramaic and does not mean Jesus is attending synagogue on successive Sabbaths so "On the next Sabbath".
εισελθων (εισερχομαι) aor. part. "went into" - attendant circumstance expressing action accompanying the verb "teach"; "he entered .... and taught."
την συναγωγην (η) "the synagogue" - Capernaum was a substantial town with a population around 10,000, the synagogue would have been THE synagogue or the main synagogue.
εδιδασκεν (διδασκω) imperf. "he began to teach" - the imperfect is inceptive, i.e. the emphasis is placed on the beginning of the action. Given synagogue protocol, Jesus would have been invited to preach, which means he was known to the elders as a rabbi. Mark is underlining the prime function of Jesus' mission, preaching.
v22 εξεπλησσοντο (εκπλησσω) imperf. "the people were amazed" – a complex word that also communicates astonished, overwhelmed, filled with fear and wonder. The imperfect tense is durative and links to Jesus' act of teaching in v21, so from the very moment he began teaching people were astonished. Remember Mark also ends with the women overcome by εκπλησσω amazement and fear (16:8). This response to Jesus is well short of faith and it seems clear that Mark wants to underline the need to move from wonder to faith.
τη διδαχη (η) dat. "teaching" - Are the people amazed at how he taught, or at the content of his teaching? Commentators are divided.
γαρ "because" - for. Expressing cause/reason; introducing a causal clause explaining why the people were amazed.
ην ... διδασκων (διδασκω) verb to-be + pres. part. "he taught" - a true periphrastic construction, ie. it is used for stylistic flair. It is possible that Mark is using the periphrastic to underline ongoing action or for emphasis.
εχων (εχω) pres. part. εξουσιαν (α) "having authority" (power/ability) these three possible meanings indicate the difficultly in identifying what it was about Jesus' teaching/presentation that prompted amazement. Was it his use of "I say unto you", rather than "thus says the Lord" or his knowledge and debating skill? The first option seems most likekly.
οι γραμματεις (υς εως) "the teachers of the law" – i.e. recognized theological authorities.
v23 ευθυς "just then" - immediately.
εν + dat. "in" - in. Expressing space/sphere. "came into / appeared in" - so "When Jesus had finished teaching, a person possessed by an evil spirit entered the synagogue and began screaming."
αυτων gen. pro. "their [synagogue]" – the genitive is possessive, is Mark saying this was the synagogue usually attended by Jesus and his disciples?
ανθρωπος (ος) "a man" an idiom; "someone."
εν + dat. "who was possessed by" - reflecting the Aramaic, expressing association, so "under the influence of".
ακαθαρτω adj. "an evil [spirit]".
ανεκραξεν (ανακραζω) aor. "cried out" – (the man or the unclean spirit?) In demon possession, the personality of the demon is distinct from the host. So, it is probably the demon enraged at the presence of Jesus, rather than the man crying out for help.
v24 λεγων (λεγω) pres. part. saying
τι ημιν και σοι "what do you want with u?" - the dative personal pronoun υμιν and σοι serve as datives of respect; "what is there with reference to “us”?" So this is an idiom with several possible meanings: "What have we and you in common", or in Classical Greek; "why do you interfere with us", or commonly "mind your own business!" Note the plural "us" meaning spirit has numerous possessing spirits with one speaking for the rest.
ηλθες (ερχομαι) aor. "have you come" - possibly a question, but the clause may also be a statement; "you have come....."
απολεσαι (απολυμι) aor. inf. "to destroy" - infinitive is expressing purpose.
οιδα ..... οιδαμεν "I know" - variant reading is "we know".
σε τις ει "who you are" -. It was believed that by knowing a person, power is gained over them. The demons knew Jesus: his name, his business, his judgment; and his nature. SO this is a taunt, "We know who you are and so you have no power over us."
ο αγιος του θεου "the Holy One of God" - Mark probably intends the phrase as a messianic title.
v25 φιμωθητι (φιμοω) aor. pas. imp. "be quiet" - be muzzled.
επετιμησεν (επιτιμαω) aor "said [Jesus] sternly" - [the sense is of an authoritative silencing: "Jesus told him to shut up." Jesus is possibly just cutting short the unclean spirit's self defense, but he may also be wanting to maintain the messianic secret.
εξελθε (εξερχομαι) aor. imp. "come out" - Jesus teaches with authority and demonstrates that authority in his command over demons.
v26 σπαραξαν (σπαρασσω) aor. part. "shook [the man] violently" - adverbial, best treated as temporal; "after throwing the man into convulsions ..." expressing action accompanying the main verb "came".
εξ + gen. "of [him]" - [expressing source; "out from him."
φωνη μελαλη dat. "with a loud voice. dative is modal, expressing manner.
φωνησαν (φωνεω) aor. part. "a shriek" (idiom) literally “a voice, a loud voice!”. The aorist tense links the verbs. The shaking and shouting illustrates resistance although ineffectual.
v27 εθαμβηθησαν (θαμβεω) aor. pas. "were all so amazed" - because Jesus cast out the demon(s) without the usual incantations and actions, with a word of command. Of course it is also quite possible exorcisms were not commonplace, at least successful ones!
συζητειν (συζητεω) pres. inf. "they asked" – (discuss, question, disputed) so the action engendered lively debate among them.
λεγοντας (λεγω) pres. part. saying. kainh adj. "a new [teaching]" - "in respect of quality.
και "even" - and. emphasizing that the authoritative word exercised over the demons is more amazing than Jesus' authoritative word in teaching, which is also amazing.
τοις πνευμασι τοις ακαθαρτοις dat. "[he even gives order to] evil spirits" – a dative of direct object after the epi prefix verb "to command."
v28 αυτου gen. pro. "[news] about him" - genitive is verbal, objective; so "the story of what Jesus had done".
της Γαλιλαιας gen. "[the region] of Galilee" - genitive is partitive; so “the news got out”
ευθυς, "immediately" and
πανταχου "everywhere" - so much for a Messianic secret!