v1 "shepherds" - the preceding passages in this section of the book cover kings Jehoahaz, Jehoiakim and Jehoiachin, it is assumed that this text refers to the reign of Zedekiah, the younger son of Josiah. Zedekiah's weak reign, under the influence of ultra-nationalist nobles, was responsible for the exile.
v2 paqad "tend ..... punish" - Bright notes that this verb serves to create a play on words, "care for" and "call to account." Bright maintains the sense with "you have not attended to them, believe me, I'm going to attend to you."
v3 "I have driven them" - The exile is an act of chastisement upon a people who have broken the covenant.
"bring them back" – is Exodus imagery. The prophecy may reflect the time of the exile, but the people of Judah would need to have a short memory not to remember the deportation policy of the Assyrians, also used by the Babylonians.
v4 "missing" (cf. Num.31:49) following the attack on Midian, a count was taken of the people and it was found that none had been lost in the assault. Here, the full number of the remnant will return, no sheep will go astray nor led astray by a worthless shepherd.
v5 "righteous branch" - true/genuine/legitimate ... pos. righteous shoot, sprout, lit. that which grows. Unlike Zedekiah, the "true shoot" will reign wisely, cf. Isa.4:2. The faithless descendants of Josiah were like dried up twigs, but the coming king will be like a new shoot, a righteous, ideal king coming out of the Davidic line.
v6 "Judah ..... Israel" - An inclusive picture of God's people, both the Northern and the Southern kingdoms.
"saved" - rescued, delivered, liberated from bondage.
Yahweh-zidaqenu "Yahweh, our righteousness" - The Lord is the one who is "the vindication of our right". The phrase is most likely a play on Zedekiah's name, Yahweh is my righteousness. In the simplest of terms the phrase means that the Lord is the one who determines what is right/just for us, but the sense of "what is right" can mean "doing what is right", "doing justice", even "establishing justice".
The disciples, wearied by the Galilean mission, draw aside "to a quiet place", to "rest" in the shepherd's care. Yet, the crowds follow, and so Jesus, having "compassion on them", "began teaching them many things".
v30 οι αποστολοι (ος) "the apostles" - the word is derived from the Hebrew meaning "authorized agent or representative."
συναγονται (συναγω) pres. pas. "gathered" – the historic present.
απηγγειλαν (απαγγελλω) aor. "reported"
v31 ησαν οι ερχομενοι και οι υπαγοντες "[many] people were coming and going" - the two participles, along with the imperfect verb to-be, form a periphrastic imperfect construction; "because there were many people spending time with Jesus."
φαγειν (εσθιω) aor. inf. "to eat" - infinitive is complementary.
δευτε "come with me" - "me" is understood.
αυτοι κατ ιδιαν "by yourselves" - privately.
ερημον adj. "a quiet place" - not the noun "desert", but rather a "lonely place"
αναπαυσασθε (αναπαυω) imperf. "get [some] rest" – to be refreshed.
v32 κατ ιδιαν "by themselves" – idiom: privately.
v33 υπαγοντας (υπαγω) pres. part. "leaving" - participle forms a dependent statement of perception expressing what they saw, namely, "the disciples and Jesus leaving for some R&R"
επεγνωσαν (επιγινωσκω) aor. "recognized"
συνεδραμον (συντρεχω) aor. "ran" - used of people running to a place and gathering there.
πεζη adv. "on foot" - as opposed to going by boat.
προηλθον (προερχομαι) aor. "got [there] ahead of [them]".
v34 εξελθων (εξερχομαι) aor. part. "when Jesus landed" - "Jesus" is understood; participle is adverbial and probably forms a temporal clause.
εσπλαγχνισθη (σπλαγχνιζομαι) aor. pas. "he had compassion [on them]" – a pity which expresses itself in active assistance".
ως "like" – as
μη εξοντα (εχω) pres. part. "not having [a shepherd]" participle is adjectival limiting "sheep"
διδασκειν (διδασκω) pres. inf. "teaching" - teach. The infinitive is complementary, completing the sense of the verb "he began".
πολλα "many things" - adjectival, possibly adverbial, "much".
v53 διαπερασαντες (διαπεραω) aor. part. "when they had crossed over" - participle is adverbial and may form a temporal clause.
Γεννησαρετ "Gennesaret" – can mean either the sea, the village of or a fertile plain to the south west of Capernaum. Mark is saying the disciples' landfall is not as intended due to the contrary wind.
προσωρμισθησαν (προσαρμιζω) aor. pas. "anchored there" - possibly "ran into the shore", although "beached the boat" is to be preferred.
v54 εξελθοντων (εξερχομαι) aor. part. gen. "As soon as [they] got out" – a genitive absolute participle forming a temporal clause.
επιγνοντες (επιγινωσκω) aor. part. "people recognized [Jesus]" - the subject, "people", is supplied, with the participle functioning as an adjective.
v55 περιφερειν (περιφερω) pres. inf. "to carry about” infinitive is complementary, completing the sense of the verb "they began" so "They ran all over that part of the country to bring their
τους εχοντας (εχω) pres. part. " sick" - ones having [illness].
τοις κραβαττοις "[on] pallets
v56 οπου αν + imperf. "everywhere [he went]" - wherever [he entered into villages ....]. a construction forms an indefinite adverbial local clause.
ετιθεσαν (τιθημι) imperf. "they placed" - imperfect is again iterative, expressing repeated action.
τους ασθενουντας (ασθενεω) "the sick" - the ones being weak.
παρεκαλουν (παρακαλεω) imperf. "they begged [him]" - the imperfect is probably iterative; "they kept begging him". Given the opening clause it would seem that the subject "they" are those who laid the sick in the marketplace, but the final clause "and all who touched it were healed" indicates that the subject is "the sick"
του κρασπεδου του ιμαρτιου αυτου gen. "the edge of his cloak" - the fringe of his garment. The genitive is adjectival, partitive. The picture is of Jesus hurrying through the crowds and people being healed on mass by just touching the hem of his clothing.
οσοι an + imperf. "all who" - as many as = whoever. As with οπου above, this construction, forming an indefinite relative clause, is intended to be iterative.
ηψαντο (απτω) aor. "touched" - the aorist tense of the verb "touched" underlines a single action and is followed by the imperfect "they were being healed" to again express repeated action.