Greek Study John 2:1-11
v1 τη ημερα τη τριτη "on the third day" - two days after the call of Philip and Nathaniel.
γαμος (ος) "wedding" - the festivities that follow the arrival of the bride at the groom’s home - can last seven days.
Κανα "Cana" - nine miles north of Nazareth in the hill country, only mentioned by John.
η μητηρ "the mother" - title of honor for any woman who has given birth to a son.
v2 εκληθη (καλεω) aor. 3rd. sing. "invited" - Jesus and his disciples were invited.
οι μαθηται "the disciples" - John uses the term "disciples" rather than "apostles".
v3 υστερησαντος (υστερεω) gen. aor. part. "when [the wine] was gone" – literally running short, lacking or late in arriving.
v4 γυναι (η) "woman" – normally used respectfully, rather than in an abrupt manner, which is why the NIV translates it "dear woman." Some commentators suggest an idiom, and that the best English equivalent would be "mother".
τι εμοι και σοι "why do you involve me?" – a Semitism, where a person asks why they are being involved in something that has nothing to do with them. This situation is clearly the groom’s responsibility.
ουπω ηκει η ωρα μου "my hour has not yet come" – in John this refers to the glorification of Christ in his death. Why would Jesus make an enigmatic aside about his death in response to an innocent comment from his mother?
v5 τοις διακονοις (ος) dat. "[said] to the servants" ποιησατε (ποιεω) aor. imp. "do" - Mary hasn't properly understood Jesus' words and decides the situation demands action, not riddles, so suggests something needs to be done and tells the boys to do something, in the sense of begging, borrowing or buying more wine. “Make this better now!”
v6 καιμεναι (καιμαι) pres. part. "[nearby] stood" λιθιναι υϑδριαι "stone water jars". Much has been made of the fact that the jars are stone and that there are six. It is possible John is underlining the ritual cleansing function of these jars.
των Ιουδαιων gen. adj. "used by the Jews" κατα + acc. "for [ceremonial washing]" χωρουσαι (χωρεω) pres. pat. "each holding" - about twenty gallons."
v7 αυτοις dat. "to the servants" - to them. ("Servants" is assumed by most translators.).
υδριαι (α) dat. "[fill the jars] with water" εως ανω "to the brim"…as full as you are able.
v8 αντλησατε (αντλεω) imp. "draw" - Westcott argues the verb is used of drawing water from a well and so therefore, the servants fill the jars (purification is complete) and then continue to draw as the water is turned into wine; an even neater trick which also explains why they .
τω αρχιτρικλινω (ος) dat. "the master of the banquet" - the head steward, or possibly the best man or guest appointed for the occasion, more likely the wedding planner..
v9 γεγενημενον (γινομαι) perf. pas. part. "that had been turned into [wine]" - participle is adjectival, attributive "water"; "the water which was now wine."
οι ηντληκοτες (αντλεω) perf. part. "[the servants] who had drawn [the water]" -
φωνει (φωνεω) pres. "called [the bridegroom aside]" - The bridegroom was responsible for the provisions and so he is the correct person to congratulate.
v10 τιθησιν (τιθημι) pres. "brings out" - places.
οταν + subj. "after” an idiom when [they have become drunk].
ελασσω (μικρος) comp. adj. "the smaller wine" - smaller = worse a comparative adjective.
v11 ταυτην pro. "this" - The miracle of turning water into wine.
αρχην (η) "was the beginning” Jesus did this as the first of his signs; " in the sense of first in a series, but also possibly first in importance.
σημειων (ον) "of his miraculous signs" - genitive is adjectival, partitive. Instead of "miracles" or "wonders", John uses the word "sign" in that Jesus' miracles are not just displays of divine power. Signs are "significant displays of power that point beyond themselves to the deeper realities that can (only) be perceived with the eyes of faith", Carson.
δοξαν (α) "glory" - For John, Christ's glory is fully displayed in the cross and empty tomb. What is seen in the sign of water to wine is a partial manifestation of the glory of that coming "hour", cf. v4. The image painted by the prophets of the coming day is of God's people siting on their back porch, underneath their grape vine, drinking freely of a new wine.