Greek Study Luke 15:11b-32
v12 τω πατρι (ηρ ρος) dat. "to [his] father" - Dative indirect object.
το επιβαλλον (επιβαλλω) pres. part. "share"– literally “the falling to”; i.e. what comes to the second son after the death of the father and the inheritance claim of the elder son. Message to the father, “You are dead to me!”
διελεν (διαιρεω) aor. "divided"– as it would be unusual to divide an estate between the sons before a father's death.
βιον (ος) "property" - root meaning is "life" - here the word is being used in the sense of "means of income", that which gives life to the family.
v13 μετ ου πολλας ημερας "after a few days" – an idiom, not long later…
συναγαγων aor. part. gathered together another idiom meaning, "went on a journey" The implication is he cashed in the property, adding insult to injury. Message to the landed family, whatever you value is worth nothing to me!
διεσκορπισεν (διασκορπιζω) aor. "squandered" past action with future implications,
ασωτως adv. "reckless loose ζων (ζαω) pres. part. "living"
v14 υστερεισθαι (υϑστερεω) pres. pas. inf. "[he began] to be in need".
v15 πορευθεις (πορευομαι) aor. pas. part. "so he went" – literally joined with ; now the injury also in verse 12 redounds to his insult as he is forced to work for a Gentile in a job that compromises his faith.
εκολληθη (κολλαω) aor. pas. "hired himself out" – “associated with”.
των πολιτων (ης ου) gen. a citizen της χωρας εκεινης gen. of that country;
βοσκειν (βοσκω) pres. inf. "to feed [pigs]"
v16 των κερατιων (ον) "pods" - possibly St. John's Bread, a sweet meal with little nourishment or wild carob, bitter with less nourishment, i.e. famine food.
v17 ελθων (ερχομι) pres. part. "when he came [to his senses]" αρτων (ος) gen. "[have] bread [to spare]"
λιμω (ος) dat. "[starving] to death" - by famine I am perishing.
v18 αναστας (ανιστημι) part. "I will arise and go.
εις ... ενωπιον "before ουρανον (ος) "heaven" - meaning "God", "heaven" is used out of deference to the divine name.
v19 ουκετι ειμι αξιος "I am no longer worthy" - phrase carries a sense of repentance.
κληθηναι (καλεω) aor. pas. inf. "to be called" - epexegetic explaining "worthy"
των μισθιων (ος) gen. "hired laborers (NOT a slave, but a minimum wage worker?)
v20 αναστας (ανιστημι) aor. part. "having arisen” to εαυτου his [father]
απεχοντος (απεχω) pres. part. "while [he] was [still a long] way off"
εσπλαγχνισθη (σπλαγχιζομαι) pas. "was filled with compassion" –mostly used of Jesus or God in the Gospels, this parable underlines mercy.
δραμων (τρεχω) aor. part. "he ran" - undignified for the elderly.
v22 στολην την πρωτην "the best robe" - the son's former robe or one of the father's, or a robe kept for an honored guest.
δακτυλιον (ος) "ring" - the father's signet ring but at least a ring whereby the father bestows authority on his wayward son
υποδηματα (α ατος) "sandals" - The mention of sandals is strange, but, given that servants tend not to wear anything on their feet, the parable is probably making the point that the father is not treating his son as a servant.
v23 τον μασχον τον σιτευτον "the fattened calf" - Meat was only for important occasions.
φαγοντες (εσθιω) aor. part. "let's have a feast" and ευφρανθωμεν (ευφραινω) aor. celebrate – a hortatory subjunctive.
v24 νεκρος adj. "[was] dead" - adjective serves as a substantive. "Dead" in the sense of "lost to the family" This is meant literally.
ανεζησεν (αναζαω) "is alive" - language implies the restoration of a lost relationship.
ην απολωλως (απολλυμι) perf. part. he was lost
ευφραινεσθαι (ευφραινω) "to celebrate" - infinitive is complementary.
v25 ερχομενος (ερχομαι) pres. part. "coming” ηγγισεν near to (palpably near) τη οικια (ος) "the house"
συμφωνιας (α) gen. "music" of a band, and χορων (ος) gen. "dancing" performers
v26 προσκαλεσαμενος (προσκαλεομαι) aor. part. he summoned
των παιδων (ις ιδος) gen. "[one] of the servants/meaningless ones"
τι αν ειη "what was going on" - the particle τι indicates a question, what", αν expresses an indefinite sense, and the optative of the verb is used to form an indirect question.
v27 υγιαινοντα (υγιαινω) pres. part. "[he has him back] safe and sound" – i.e. healthy.
v28 ωργισθη (οργιζω) "became angry" – the father is acting as an enabler and the property rightly belonging to the older son is now being given to the younger. The elder brother is not so much rejecting his father as not understand his father.
εισελθειν (εισερχομαι) aor. inf. "[refused] to go in"- self excommunication.
εξελθων (ερξερχομαι) aor. part. "so [his father] went out!".
παρεκαλει (παρακαλεω) imperf. "pleaded" - exhorts his eldest son to share the joy of his brother's restoration.
v29 αποκριθεις (αποκρινομαι) aor. pas. part. having answered; a long-winded Semitic construction.
ουδεποτε εντολην "and never disobeyed you" the elder brother is offended by the fuss made of the wayward brother’s return.
v30 ο υιος σου αυτος "this son of yours" – the language distances the elder from the wayward brother.
ο καταφαγων (κατεσθιω) aor. part. "who has devoured [your property]"
v31 τεκνον my heir - an affectionate but offended response; how could the elder think mercy toward the younger has in any way affected his standing?
παντα τα εμα σα εστιν everything I have is yours.
v32 απολωλως (απολλυμι) perf. part. he was lost