LOST IN PLAIN SIGHT
v1 ησαν ... εγγιζοντες (εγγιζω) pres. part. "were [all] gathering near" the construction leaves one wondering the type of action implied, eg. is it iterative, implying that tax collectors and sinners were constantly coming to Jesus?
v2 λεγοντες (λεγω) pres. part. Idiom "muttered" lit saying.
ουτος pro. "this man" - this one. Usually a contemptuous way to refer to another person.
προσδεχεται (προσδεχομαι) pres. "welcomes" – receives, "associates with" sinners
v3 την παραβολην "[these] parables" though singular "parabolic discourse" is implied.
v4 τις ..... ου "Suppose .... does [he] not / doesn't [he]" – a negated question which expects a positive answer
απολεσας (απολλυμι) aor. part. "loses [one of them]" εν + dat. "in [the open country!" - expressing space/sphere. To translate “desert, mountain or wilderness” implies a lack of care, so “in the pasture land" seems best.
v5 ευρων (ευρισκω) aor. part. "when he finds it" χαιρων (χαιρω) pres. part. "[he] joyfully [puts it]" επι + acc. "on [his shoulders]".
v6 ελθων (ερχομαι) aor. part. "goes home" and συγκαλει (συγκαλεω) pres. "gathers together" – a historic present tense for dramatic effect.
λεγων (λεγω) pres. part. "and says"
συγχαρητε (συγχαιρω) aor. imp. "rejoice with" - aorist tense here expressing immediate, urgent action.
οτι because. το απολωλος (απολλυμι) perf. part. “the sheep which was lost"
v7 υμιν dat. pro. "[I tell] you" - οτι "that" ουτως adv. "in this same way" εσται (ειμι) "there will be more [rejoicing]" - future tense is logical, stating what is, rather than what will be.
μετανοουντι (μετανοεω) pres. part. "[one sinner] repenting participle is adjectival, limiting "sinner". Luke, in his selection of gospel episodes, shows us that repentance is a change of direction, like accepting an invitation.
δικαιοις adj. "righteous persons" - righteous, just. Adjective used as a substantive. Does Jesus mean "self-righteous "? It is possible, for the sake the argument, that Jesus means "righteous" in the same sense as Zechariah and Elizabeth "were righteous before God, living blamelessly according to all the commandments and regulations of the Lord", 1:6. If so, are there actually people "who do not need to repent"? It is possible that the phrase is facetious (an ad hominem argument); "those who think they do not need to repent".
μετανοιας (α) gen. "[who do not need] to repent" - the genitive can be treated as adjectival; "they have nothing of which they need to repent."
v8 εχουσα (εξω) pres. part. "has" - [what woman] having [ten drachmas, if she loses ....].
ουχι αϑπτει (αϑπτω) pres. "does she not light [a lamp]" - syntax forms a question expecting a positive answer. The imagery here is of a mud brick and earth/stone floor single room home, dark due to few windows, and in need of careful sweeping to find anything.
εως ου + subj. "until [she finds what she lost].
v9 ευρουσα (ευρισκω) aor. part. "when she finds" λεγουσα (λεγω) pres. part. "and says" μοι dat. pro. "[rejoice with] me οτι because
v10 ουτως adv. "in the same way" υμιν dat. pro. "[I tell] you" γινεται (γινομαι) pres. "there comes to be”
του θεου (ος) gen. "[in the presence of the angels] of God" - out of deference to God he is not described as rejoicing, rather there is a general rejoicing "before" the angels.
επι + dat. "over" μετανοουντι (μετανοεω) pres. part. "who repents" - The participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting "one sinner." As above, repentance in the sense of a turning to God, a decision to rest humbly on God's mercy rather than an expression of sorrow or regret.