Greek Study Luke 19:1-10
v1 διηρχετο (διερχομαι) imperf. "was passing through" - Durative, so he had entered Jericho and "was on his way through it".
v2 και ιδου and behold. to focus the reader’s attention, even promote surprise; "suddenly".
ονοματι καλουμενος "by the name of" - a redundant; "whose name was".
Ζακχαιος "Zacchaeus" - Zechariah, a good Jewish name.
aρχιτελωνης "chief tax collector" - Zacchaeus was the head government official in Jericho for the collection of revenue and probably other government business. He would have purchased this position; likely bartered for it. Zacchaeus was regarded a traitor in the pay of Rome. As part of the tax component, a percentage went to the tax collector, which set at his discretion, heightening the people's hate.
πολουσιος adj. "wealthy"
v3 εζητει (ζητεω) imperf. "he wanted" - The imperfect is durative, so "he was eager…"
ιδειν (ειδον) aor. inf. "to see [Jesus]" to just "see" or to "meet with" – it is unclear.
τις εστιν "who [Jesus] was" - possibly "what Jesus was like".
ουκ ηδυνατο (δυναμαι) imperf. pas. "he could not" απο + gen. "because [of the crowd]".
τη ηλικια (α) dat. "[he was] a short" – a dative of respect; "with respect to his height he was short." As far as the crowd is concerned, Zacchaeus' ‘smallness” is more than a matter of height so no one is likely to get out of his way and let him see Jesus.
v4 προδραμων (προτρεχω) aor. part. "so he ran ahead" - adverbial, consecutive, expressing result, he tried to see Jesus but was unable, with the result that he ran ahead and ...."
εις το εμπροσθεν into the front a redundant.
συκομορεαν (α) "sycamore (fig) tree" - mulberry, tree looks like an Oak tree and can grow very large.
v5 αναβλεψας (αναβλεπω) aor. part. "he looked up" (I lift up mine eyes to the hills - Ps 121)
σπευσας (σπευδω) aor. part. "[you come down] immediately".
μειναι (μενω) aor. inf. "stay" remain, abide - infinitive functions as the subject of the verb.
σημερον adv. "today" - Some suggest an allusion to "the coming day, which for Zacchaeus has now come – a realized eschatology.
v6 σπευσας (σπευδω) aor. part. "at once".
χαιρων (χαιρω) pres. part. "gladly" - the participle is modal, expressing manner Jesus' entry into Zacchaeus' home serves as a sign of forgiveness.
v7 παντες "all" - Not just Pharisees, but all Jews ιδοντες (ειδον) aor. part. "saw" and διεγογγυζον (διαγογγυζον) imperf. “muttered" – idiom, they bitched…the imperfect is inceptive, “muttering with indignation".
λεγοντες (λεγω) pres. part. saying Attendant circumstance participle, redundant.
καταλυσαι "to be the guest of" from which the word καταλυμι derives as in “there was no room at the καταλυμι, the INN [i.e. guest room] found in Luke 2!
v8 σταθεις (ιστημι) aor. pas. part. "stood up" the standing up serves to underline the importance of what Zacchaeus is about to say or as a reaction to the negative response of his neighbors and thus a defense of Jesus' visit to his home. Possibly an idiom for Zacchaeus stood his ground.
κυριε (ος) "Lord" – formal address
διδωμι pres. "I am giving” - present tense is interesting as the action is durative. Is Zacchaeus handing money over at the present moment or is it futuristic? David Lose poses that this is an example of our doctrine informing the Greek and not the other way around. If he is correct, (and grammatically he is undoubtedly correct) this is like to the rich young ruler “I have always kept the Law…” and not so much repentance as a boast! Yet Jesus forgives him anyway!!
τα ημισια pl. adj. "half" - the half. A 50% giving regime seems excessive; Pharisees regarded 20% as generous.
των υπαρχοντων (υπαρχω) gen. pres. part. "of [my] possessions".
ει εσυκοφαντησα (συκοφαντεω) aor. "if I have cheated" – of course he has cheated…
τινος gen. pro. "out of anything" The genitive is ablative, expressing separation.
αποδιδωμι pres. "I will pay back" - I am paying back. Again, present tense (and do not accept the ‘present durative tense’ explanation for this as this tense was invented for this passage alone - it exists NOWHERE else in Greek writings!)
τετραπλουν adv. "four times the amount" - such theft would require the repayment of what was stolen + a fifth. Zacchaeus offers more than is required by the law – so according to the Law; Zacchaeus is one stand-up dude!
v9 σημερον adv. "today" σωτηρια (α) "salvation" "messianic salvation" = "the kingdom of God has come near to you", 10:9, is present / bursting in upon, such that the believer is free to enter / is welcomed into.
εγενετο (γινομαι) aor. "has come" - came, happened. "Salvation has happened in this house".
τω οικω (ος) dat. "to [this] house" - family - dative is locative, expressing space – an interesting feature in the NT, especially in Acts, is the extension of salvation to the repentant person's house/ family, which is possibly the sense here.
Αβραηαμ "[is a son] of Abraham" the sense here is unlikely to mean that Zacchaeus aligns with Abraham morally, but that as a descendant of Abraham, he is entitled to salvation because even this tax-collector is a Jew. Or Jesus may be making the point that Zacchaeus possesses the faith of Abraham.
v10 του ανθρωπου (ος) gen. "[the Son] of Man" - relational. Many commentators balk at the title of Jesus' earthly ministry, but also the eschatological title.
ζητησαι (ζητεω) inf. "to seek [and to save]" - infinitive expressing purpose, "in order to seek" The messiah's role of seeking lost sheep of Israel is central to OT prophecy (Ezk.34). We extend this to include Gentiles, but for the NT, the lost are usually the house of Israel, scattered and facing destruction. Israel is saved by adopting the faith of Abraham, so it is a faith like Abraham's that Gentiles become Abraham's children and are incorporated into Israel as well.
το απολωλος (απολλυμι) perf. part. "what was lost" – literally the ones being destroyed – the participle serves as a substantive. The perfect tense expressing a past situation which is ongoing.