Greek Study Luke 20:27-38
v27 μη ειναι "there is no [resurrection]" - negated infinitive of the verb to-be serves to introduce a dependent statement stating what the Sadducees say; "the resurrection does not exist."
v28 ημιν dat. "for us" - Dative of advantage, "for our advantage" i.e. "Moses prescribed a regulation for us".
εαν + subj. "if" a conditional clause 3rd class, where the realization of the condition is a possibility. The quoted scripture is drawn from Deut.25:5, and Gen.38:8. "If a man dies and has no children, his brother should marry his widow".
ινα + subj. "[the man] must [marry]" - natural sense of the apodosis in this conditional sentence is imperatival, it stands in place of an infinitive which, following εγραψεν, "wrote" forms a dependent statement expressing what Moses wrote.
εξαναστηση/ (εξανιστημι) aor. subj. "have children" – i.e. provide an heir.
v29 λαβων (λαμβανω) aor. part. "[the first one] married [a woman]"
ατεκνος adj. "[died] childless"
v30 ο δευτερος "the second"
v31 ωσαυτως adv. "in the same way"
v32 υστερον adv. "finally" afterwards, last, later, finally.
v33 η γυνη "the woman, wife”. a nominative pendens as "the wife" is the focus of the question.
εν + dat. "at [the resurrection]" - temporal, "at the time of..."
τινος αυτων gen. "whose [wife]" γινεται (γινομαι) pres. "will she become?" futuristic.
γαρ "since" Expressing cause.
οι ... επτα "the seven"
γυναικα acc. "[were married] to her" - a double accusative construction; "since she was married to all seven of them".
v34 του αιωνος (ων ωνος) gen. "[the people] of [this] age" –
v35 οι καταξιωθεντες aor. pas. part. "those who are judged worthy" divine reward would properly apply, and such reward would logically entail resurrection. So, the implication is that not everyone will participate in "the age to come".
τυχειν (τυγχανω) aor. inf. "of taking part in" infinitive is epexegetic explaining what they are considered worthy of sharing the age to come and the resurrection of the dead."
του αιωνος εκεινου "that age" genitive, as with της αναστασεως, "of the resurrection", is a genitive of direct object after the infinitive τυχειν.
ουτε .... ουτε "neither .... nor" - Comparative. It is not that there are no relationships in the KoG, rather there is no need to retain institutions that function for the purpose of continuing family line procreation. Jesus seems to reject the premise for marriage adopted by both Pharisee and Sadducee (and by Luther and the Medieval church and the Evangelical branch that exists in this age). Marriage is for those who die, but those who share in the resurrection do not die. Of course this implies procreation is the only purpose of marriage; remove procreation and there is no need for it (see vs 36).
v36 γαρ "for” expressing cause explaining why there is no need to maintain the institution of marriage in heaven.
δυνανται (δυναμαι) pres. pas. "they are [not] able”
αποθανειν (αποθνησκω) aor. inf. "die" - infinitive is complementary.
ισαγγελοι (ος) adj. "like the angels" - possibly "equal to angels". A Hapax legomenon, They are angel-like in the sense that like angels, those who share in the resurrection will not die (Danker).
θεου (ος) gen. "[they are] God's [children]" – best members of the kingdom of God united to God.
οντες (ειμι) pres. part. "since" [they are] της αναστασεως (ις εως) gen. "[children] of the resurrection" – i.e. resurrection children.
v37 δε "but" επι + gen. "in the account" making the point that it's "at" that point in the Bible which speaks about the burning bush.
της βατου "of the bush" Moses indicated in the passage concerning the thorn-bush".
και "even [Moses made known]. Jesus confines himself to the Pentateuch, the scriptures regarded authoritative by BOTH Pharisees and Sadducees.
οτι "that" introducing an object clause fronted for emphasis - which proposition Moses also obviously holds to be true; "that the dead are in fact raised", Barclay.
εγειρονται (εγειρω) pres. pas. "rise" Theological passive, God does the raising.
v38 θεος "God" - is not [the God] of νεκρων gen. adj. "the dead".
αλλα "but" ζωντων (ζαω) gen. pres. part. "of the living ones”
παντες "all [are alive]" all people both dead and alive.
ζωσιν (ζαω) pres. "are alive" as far as humanity is concerned, the dead are dead, but as far as God is concerned they are alive. But in what sense? All those who are worthy will live such that what the Christian now shares corporately in Christ will be fulfilled individually at the Parousia (Ellis). Others say simply "the patriarchs live because of their association with the God of life" – the Pauline version is "alive in Christ".