Greek Study Matthew 9:35-10:15
v35 περιηγεν (περιαγο) imperf. "[Jesus] went through" The imperfect expresses durative action; "Jesus made a tour… "
διδασκων (διδασκω) pres. part. "teaching" modal, expressing the manner of Jesus' going about.
συναγωγαις (η) "synagogues" i.e. the centers of teaching.
ευαγγελιον (ον) "good news" της βασιλειας (α) gen. "of the kingdom" Out of deference to the divine Matthew drops "God" and seems to use ευαγγελιζομαι in the technical sense of "gospel"
μαλακιαν (α) "sickness/weakness”
v36 ιδων (ειδον) aor. part. "when he saw"
εσπλαγχνισθη (σπλαγχνιζομαι) aor. "he had compassion" - he was moved with pity"
ησαν εσκυλμενοι (σκυλλω)Äperf. pas. part. "they were harassed" - distressed, worried, bewildered, confused. Periphrastic pluperfect construction. The people were wondering aimlessly in the truth department – you know, like the Trump administration.
ερριμμενοι (ριπτω) perf. pas. part. "helpless" – literally prostrate, vulnerable. Periphrastic pluperfect construction.
v37 πολυς "plentiful" - "abundant/plentiful" seems closer to the mark.. Grench soldiers were called “polloi” in WWI, it meant common.
v38 δεηθητε (διδωμι) aor. pas. imp. "ask" - here making a prayer request.
του θερισμου gen. "[the Lord] of the harvest" – an idiom, "Turn to the one who owns the harvest".
εκβαλη (εκβαλλω) "cast out" – a strong verb.
4:1 προσκαλεσαμενος (προσκαλεομαι) aor. part. "he called" - summoned.
δωδεκα adj. "twelve" a new Israel (the 12 tribes) or nothing more than a significant whole number, like a dozen.
2&3 The list of the twelve is paired (sent out two by two?) The lists in the synoptic gospels always have the two sets of brothers first, with Peter at the head of the list and James set before his brother John. The placement of both indicate the relative position of Peter and James in the New Testament church. Limited knowledge is known of the rest: Philip, cf. Jn.1:43ff; Bartholomew, meaning son of Tolmai; Thomas, meaning twin; Matthew the tax collector, cf. 9:9; James son of Alphaeus, the full name serves to distinguish him from James the son of Zebadee; Thaddaeus, a little known apostle; Simon the Zealot / Cananaean; Judas, always listed last.
των ... αποστολων (ος) "of the [twelve] apostles" the sent ones - so named only in Matthew.
ο λεγομενος (λεγω) pres. pas. part. "who is called [Peter]"
v4 παραδους (παραδιδωμι) aor. "betrayed"
v5 αποστειλεν (αποστελλω) aor. "sent out" The sent ones are sent.
παραγγειλας (παραγγελλω) aor. part. "with the following instructions" -
μη απελθητε (απερχομαι) aor. subj. "do not go" - Subjunctive of prohibition (as opposed to 28:16).
εις οδον εθνων "among the Gentiles" - into the road of the heathen = Gentile territory.
και .... μη εισελθητε (εισερχομαι) aor. subj. "or enter" – i.e. the mission is to Galilee, not north to Gentile or south to Samaritan territory, or theological, i.e. the gospel must first be proclaimed to the house of Israel, and then to Samaritans and Gentiles (as opposed to Acts.)
v6 δε μαλλον but rather τα απολωλοτα (απολλυμι) perf. part. [the] lost - scattered, destroyed, ruined. "Lost" seems best.
οικου (ος) gen. "house [of Israel]" - "the sheep which belong to the house of Israel."
v7 πορευομενοι (πορευομαι) pres. part. going (cf 28:16)
κηρυσσετε (κηρυσσω) pres. imp. "preach" λεγοντες (λεγω) pres. part. "this message"
η βασιλεια (α) "the kingdom" - the disciples are to communicate is the same one Jesus communicated in 4:17 and interestingly, the same one the Baptist communicated in 3:2. των ουρανων (ος) "of heaven" is ηγγικεν (εγγιζω) perf. ind. act "palpable" both: now and not yet.
v8 ασθενουντας (ασθενεω) pres. part. "[heal] the weak" -
εκβαλλετε (εκβαλλω) pres. imp. "cast out"
δωρεαν ελαβετε, δωρεαν δοτε "Freely you have received, freely give"
v9 μη κτησησθε (καταομαι) aor. subj. "do not take along" - a subjunctive of prohibition. In the sense of "provide for oneself", so "take along in your money-belt."
v10 πηραν (α) "bag" a traveling bag or in this context it may be a beggar's collection bag.
ραβδον "staff" - used as a weapon, so the disciples are being told not to take along weapons of self-defense (although later a "sward" is suggested, Lk.22:36 but that is an offensive weapon).
αξιος adj. "[is] worth" worthy here the sense is "deserving”.
της τροφης "keep" – idiom = food- a missionary of the gospel; "deserves his rations".
v11 εξετασατε (εξεταζω) aor. imp. "search" - scrutinize, examine.
αξιος adj. "worthy" – deserving - not referring to a person worthy through law-obedience but one who offers hospitality.
μεινατε (μενω) aor. imp. "stay [at his house]" - the point of this imperative addresses the temptation to accept an offer of better accommodation when having first accepted less respectable digs - the danger of upward mobility!!!!
v12 εισερχομενοι (εισερχομαι) pres. part. "entering" ασπασασθε (ασπαζομαι) aor. imp. "give [it your] greeting" The "it" is την οικιαν the house which here means "the household".
v13 αξια adj. "deserving" - worthy. Again I am unsure how to read this word in its context. Probably welcoming hospitality is still in mind, but extending welcoming to the message as well as the messenger. One is a duty, the other a delight
ελθατω (ερκομαι) aor. imp. act. "let [your peace] rest" is likely to refer to the continuation of the prayer for God's peace to fall on the household.
ειρηνη (η) "peace" - well-being. Referring to the peace which the disciples ask God to send upon the household.
επιστραφητω (επιστρεφω) aor. pas. imp. "let [your peace] return [to you]" – a Semitic expression which carries the idea that where something has not been effective, has not achieved its purpose, things remain as they are.
v14 ακουση/ (ακουω) aor. subj. "[or] listen [to your words]" in the sense of "believe/accept".
εξερχομενοι (εξερχομαι) pres. mid. part. "when you leave / leave [that home or town]" action accompanying the imperative "shake off".
κονιορτον (ος) "dust" - a prophetic action illustrating total abandonment. It was the practice of Jews who, upon crossing from Gentile territory into Jewish territory, to shake the dust off their sandals.
v15 ανεκτοτερον comp. adj. "more bearable" tolerable for the twin cities of evil known for their extraordinary sinfulness, than for a household or village that rejects the gospel.
ημερα κρισεως "the day of judgment" - the lack of articles is typical for the technical expression used of God's eschatological judgment (as in opposition to the prophets who speak of historical judgment.)