Greek Study Matthew 22:1-14
v1 αποκριθεις (αποκρινομαι) aor. pas. part. "[Jesus] spoke" attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the verb "spoke." Matthew often has Jesus "answering" (although Jesus hasn't actually been asked a question!)
v2 των ουρανων (ος) gen. "[the kingdom] of heaven." Matthew's favored title for "the kingdom of God", “heaven" used out of deference to the divine.
ωμοιωθη (ομοιοω) aor. pas. "is like" - is like – comparison.
ανθρωπω/ (ος) dat. a man [king] in apposition to king, a dative of comparison.
γαμους (ος) literally [made] a marriage. in the plural, as here, "a wedding feast" - the eschatological immediacy of this event should not be lost, now rather than not yet.
v3 τους κεκλημενους (καλεω) perf. pas. part. "to those who had been invited" Indicating a previous invitation, as was the custom. The invitation went out some time before and now those who have been invited are summoned to attend.
ελθειν (ερχομαι) aor. inf. "[they refused] to come".
v4 αλλους pro. "more [servants]" - Probably in the sense of sending the servants out again rather than different servants.
τοις κεκλημενοις (καλεω) perf. pas. part. "those who have been invited".
το αριστον (ον) "dinner" - originally breakfast, later referred to a main meal.
τα σιτιστα adj. "fattened cattle" - fattened.
τεθυμενα (θυω) perf. pas. part. "have been butchered" - sacrificed = killed.
v5 αμελησαντες (αμελεω) aor. part. "they paid no attention" - attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the main verb "left / went off"; "they paid no attention and went off" - expressing negligence, indifference.
v6 κρατησαντες (κρατεω) aor. part. "seized" - having taken hold of - attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the verb
υβρισαν (υβριζω) aor. "mistreated" - seriously insulted; to treat something as absolutely worthless.
v7 ωργισθη (οριζω) aor. pas. "was enraged" - an inceptive aorist where the beginning of the action is emphasized, "now the king became angry."
πεμψας (πεμπω) aor. pas. "having sent” attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the verb "destroyed".
στρατευματα (α ατος) "his troops” – in koine’ used to describe Roman legions.
την πολιν αυτων ενεπρησεν "burned their city" - some like to argue that this is an image of the destruction of Jerusalem (which one is the question).
v8 ετοιμος εστιν "is ready" - Present tense.
οι ... κεκλημενοι (καλεω) perf. pas. part. "those I invited".
ουκ ησαν αξιοι "did not deserve to come" - were not worthy of the honor.
v9 ων οδων (ος) gen. "the street corners" - the genitive is adjectival, attributive, limiting "intersection"; "the road intersection at the edge/center of town." Possibly where the roads converge in a village square and thus where the poor would gather waiting for work, or where the cardo crossed the decumanus maximus i. e the main market intersection of town. Others argue the noun διεξοδους is not "intersection" but were a road ends or begins so it could mean; "the edge of the kingdom."
v10 πονηρους τε και αγαθους "both good and bad" - wicked and good. Probably stylistic language expressing a universal intent rather than any theological statement, "Tell everyone you meet to come to the banquet".
ο γαμος "the wedding hall" επλησθη (πιμπλημι) aor. pas. "was filled" - "literally “crammed with” ανακειμενων (ανακειμαι) gen. pres. part. " guests" – lit. those reclining at table.
v11 εισελθων (εισερχομαι) aor. part. "when [the king] came in" - temporal.
θεασασθαι (θεαομαι) aor. inf. "to see" - expressing purpose.
τους ανακειμενους (ανακειμαι) pres. part. "the ones reclining at table”.
ουκ ενδεδυμενον (ενδυω) perf. mid. part. "not having been clothed. The negation is unusual.
γαμου (ος) gen. "wedding [clothes].
v12 εταιρε (ος) voc. "friend" – a kindly address (see parable of the unjust steward).
πως "how" – an interrogative; direct question.
ο δε εφιμωθη (φιμοω) aor. pas. "the man was speechless".
v13 δησαντες (δεω) aor. part. "bind" - functioning as an imperative, the person is bound so he can't get back into the feast.
εις το σκοτος το εξωτερον "into the darkness" – an idiom, “the place of the rejected”.
ο βρυγμος (ος) "gnashing" – chattering, describing rage. The phrase is repeated in Matthew a number of times (13:42, 50, 24:51, cf. Lk.13:28). For those who stand approved on the Day of Judgment, there will be no more weeping, for the outcast there will be nothing but weeping. Matthew is not inclined to allow his reader or community to avoid the down side of judgment, grace or not, there will be a judgment and it will be unpleasant for some.
v14 γαρ "for" πολλοι .... ολιγοι "many .... few" - a comparison between the totality of those invited with the small number chosen; i.e. everyone is invited, not everyone gets a seat.
εκλεκτοι adj. pl. "chosen" – a term is used for "God's people”.