2:23 παραπορευεσθαι (παραπορευομαι) pres. inf. "was going [through]" - infinitive forms an infinitival clause, subject of the verb εγενετο "it became / happened" = "to pass through the grainfields on the Sabbath happened".
των σπαριμων adj. "grainfields" - adjective "sown" here used as a substantive, = the grain would be either wheat or barley.
ποιειν (ποιεω) pres. inf. "walked" – literally [began] to do the infinitive is complementary, probably with the sense "make their way ....", usually shortened to "they began plucking". The phrase is descriptive of the disciples pushing their way through a grainfield and so making a path for themselves. Technically “free” reaping is allowed along only the edge for the poor and hungry. And this is the heart of the complaint, they are neither poor nor hungry, hjut taking a short cut.
τιλλοντες (τιλλω) pres. part. "they began to pick" - participle is adverbial, probably modal expressing the manner in which they passed.
v24 ο ουκ εξεστιν "what is unlawful" - not permitted. "The Pharisees regarded what the disciples were doing as work. That the Pharisees were always present to make negative comments every time Jesus does something controversial is questioned by some commentators, although given Jesus' controversial ministry we would expect the religious authorities to keep an eye on him.
τοις σαββασιν (ον) dat. "on the Sabbath" - dative of time; the plural use is idiomatic.
v25 Jesus now relates the story of when David and his companions ate the loaves of presentation, cf. 1Sam.21:1-7, v25-26. He takes some "poetic license". Under normal circumstances a rabbinical argument would only stand where two texts are quoted and these not from a historical book. Jesus' interpretation stands by itself.
λεγει (λεγω) pres. "he answered" - Historic present used for a dramatic purpose.
ανεγνωτε adv. "have you [never] read" - Rhetorical indicative verb modified by a temporal adverb. Obviously they had read, just not understood.
οι μετ αυτου "those with him. The article serves as a nominalizer turning the prepositional phrase into a noun.
χρειαν εσχεν και επεινασεν "were hungry and in need" - he had need and was hungry. The doubling up of the "need" possibly reflects the general tendency by the rabbis to justify David's actions as being from one ravenously hungry whose life was in danger. On the other hand, it is possible that "hungry" simply explains when he found himself in need.
v26 Αβιαθαρ Abiathar" - At the time of this story Ahimelech was the high priest. Abiathar, a son of Ahimelech, was one of the few who escaped the slaughter perpetrated by Doeg the Edomite. Both Matthew and Luke omit the name, as do some Markan manuscripts. "In the days of" may provide a general designation, rather than a specific one or it may be a gloss, or possibly Mark made a mistake. Freedman suggests that in the development of a tradition, as here, a better known name often supplants a lesser known name (Abiathar's importance relates to his association with "the house of God", ie. the temple in Jerusalem, and his association with David).
αρχιερεως (υς εως) gen. "the high priest" - Genitive is apposition to "Abiathar".
του θεου (ος) gen. "[house] of God"
της προθεσεως (ις εως) gen. "the consecrated [bread]" "God" is assumed, bread that is offered, set forth to God, so "consecrated" bread. The twelve "loaves of presentation to God" were placed on the altar on the Sabbath, and replaced the next. The priests ate the replaced bread.
ει μη "only for [priests]" .
φαγειν (φαγω) aor. inf. "to eat"
v27 δια + acc. "[was made] for" - [the Sabbath was created] on account although here leaning toward the benefit. The second use, δια το σαββατον, causal without any idea of benefit.
τον ανθρωπον "man" – some suggest that "Son of Man", rather than just "man" represents an Aramaic. The idea is that the Sabbath once given for Israel is now given to the world.
v28 ωστε + ind. "so" - is usually expressing result, but here expresses the authority of the Son of Man over the Sabbath. Neither Luke nor Matthew include v27 and so do not need to make a link with v28. They may well have noted the confusion caused by v27 and set it aside from the tradition to enable a proper focus on Jesus. Jesus goes to the heart of Sabbath Law teaching that it is designed for the enrichment of humanity, for the good of all.
του ανθρωπου "[the Son] of Man" takes up authority and rule at the right hand of the Ancient of Days is now in charge.
κυριος (ος) "Lord" - The capitalizing of "lord" in translations imply the word is a divine title, but "one who exercises authority" is what Jesus has in mind.
του σαββατου (ον) gen. "of the Sabbath" - idiomatic/of subordination; "over the Sabbath".
3:1 παλιν adv. "another time" - again. Temporal adverb.
εχων (εξω) pres. part. "with" - having [the hand having been withered]. The participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting "man", "a man was there who had a withered hand."
εξηραμμενην (ξηραινω) perf. pas. part. "a shriveled [hand]" perfect tense is used to express a past event which has ongoing results.
την χειρα (χειρ ος) "hand" - the hand. - the article indicates possession.
v2 παρετηρουν (παρατηρεω) imperf. "some of them were looking" idiom, studying someone intently; the prefix παρα serving to intensify "they were watching." obviously the religious authorities.
ινα + subj. "for a reason to [accuse Jesus]" - expressing purpose.
θεραπευσει (θεραπευω) fut. "he would heal [him]" - the future tense is used with an interrogative ει to express the question that would be in the mind of those watching.
v3 λεγει (λεγω) pres. "Jesus said" - Historic present tense.
τω ανθρωπω (ος) dat. "to the man" - Dative of indirect object.
τω .... εχοντι (εξω) dat. pres. part. "with [the shriveled hand]" - articular participle is adjectival, limiting "man".
εγειρε εις το μεσον "stand up in front of everyone" - rise into the middle. Luke's εγειρε και στηθι εις το μεσον, "arise and stand into [in] the middle [of the gathering]", is somewhat more instructive than Mark's short talk.
v4 Given that the law is designed for good the logic of Jesus’ question is that "to refuse to do good is to do evil; and it could not be right to do evil on the Sabbath. The religious authorities remain silent because, given their legalist understanding of the law, they are unable to answer. The fact that their logic has forced them into a corner should prompt a reassessment of basic principles and a recognition that Jesus' humanitarian approach to law has something in it - that the Sabbath may have indeed been made for man. Their unwillingness to rethink their position rightly prompts Jesus' οργη, "anger".
λεγει (λεγω) "[then] Jesus asked" - Historic present.
εξεστιν pres. "which is lawful" - right, permissible, allowed. The subject of the verb consists of the four substantive infinitives, "to do good / to do evil / to save / to destroy"; "to help or to hurt, to save life or to kill".
ποιησαι (ποιεω) aor. inf. "to do [good]" - This infinitive, together with "to do evil", "to save [life]" and "to kill", is properly classified as the subject of the verb.
δε "but" - but, and. Here obviously adversative.
εσιωπων (σιωπαω) imperf. "they remained silent" - imperfect being durative, expresses ongoing action. The article specifies the subject, namely, the authorities.
v5 So, Jesus does good and heals the man. The Pharisees, on the other hand, do evil; and plan his death.
περιβλεψαμενος (περιβλεπω) aor. part. "he looked around [at them]" A nice descriptive such that we can imagine Jesus doing the sweeping stare.
μετ (μετα) "with [anger] / in [anger]" - expressing the manner of Jesus' looking around, "angerly"; "wrathfully", Describing Jesus' reaction; the looking is not friendly!
συλλυπουμενος (συλλυπεω) pres. pas. part. "deeply distressed" - grieved. The participle is adverbial, expressing the manner of Jesus' looking around, "he looked around with anger and grief". The presence of the prefix συν would imply "grieve with" = "sympathize", but "grieving along with" is not how the context has it, but rather συλλυπουμενος επι, "grieved at." The οργη, "anger", is not just anger, annoyance, but rather a grieving anger driven by a feeling of hurt at the inhumanity of the religious officials; a mixture of anger and sorrow. These human qualities describe the nature of Jesus, not just his humanity, since the divine is not devoid of feelings.
της καρδιας (α) gen. "[stubborn] hearts" - [hardness] of the hearts -"hard hearts" = "impervious minds", idiomatic, "He sensed their inhumanity",
τω ανθρωπω (ος) dat. "[he said] to the man" - Dative of indirect object.
απεκατεσταθη (αποκαθιστημι) aor. pas. "[his hand] was completely restored" - returned to its original soundness. The aorist expressing completed action.
v6 εξελθοντες (εξερχομαι) aor. part. "then [the Pharisees] went out" participle expressing action accompanying the verb "giving [counsel against]/held [council. The implied subject is obviously "the Pharisees" and their "going out" refers to their going out of the synagogue. ευθυς immediately [held counsel with the Herodians]. indicates that the Pharisees started plotting Jesus' murder on the Sabbath, a work that was also unlawful, Note that Herod's party was a political not religious grouping,, but it would be necessary for the Pharisees to get them on side if they were to make a move against Jesus.
συμβουλιον εδιδουν "and began to plot" ie. they are functioning as "assassins",.
οπως + subj. "how [they might kill Jesus]" This is the first mention of Jesus' opponents want to kill him. Literally "destroy", so "kill", but better, "assassinate".