On Tuesday morning the pastors of Lutheran Saints in Ministry gather in Fairborn Ohio to discuss the texts for Sunday.

These are the contributions that are brought to the table.

Tuesday, January 22, 2019

A Greek Text Study of Luke 4:14-21

Greek Study Luke 4:14-22

V14 υπεστρεψεν "returned", expresses space/sphere,  so "empowered, or full of the Spirit", or accompaniment, "equipped with 
του πνευματος (α ατος) gen. "[the power] of the Spirit" - ablative, expressing source.
φημη (η) "news" - in a neutral sense - not in the sense of the English transliteration, "fame".
καθ (κατα) της περιχωρου (ος) "through the [whole] countryside" - surrounding region. meaning "throughout Galilee".

v15 εδιδασκεν (διδασκω) imperf. "he taught" - he was teaching. Imperfect expressing ongoing action, probably iterative, repeated action; "he went on teaching", Barclay.
δοξαζομενος (δοξαζω) perf. pas. part. "everyone praised [him]"  A strong word, usually reserved for God. The cause of the praise is usually attributed to Jesus' miracles, but Luke links it to his teaching.

v16 hn teqrammenoV (trefw) perf. pas. part. "he had been brought up" – idiom, he had been fed, nourished, reared. The perfect participle with the imperfect forms a periphrastic pluperfect serving to emphasize the duration of his living in Nazareth as a child and young man. 
των σαββατων (ον) gen. "the Sabbath day."
το ειωθος (ειωθα) perf. part. {as was his}custom" - his habit ie Jesus was a pious Jew.
αναγνωναι (αναγινωσκω) aor. inf. "to read" - infinitive expresses purpose, "he stood up [in order] to read." In the synagogue service the rabbi teacher stood read and sat to teach. There was probably a cycle of readings, first from Torah followed by a reading from the Prophets. The reading was in Hebrew with a translation in Aramaic.
v17 του προφητου (ος) gen. "[the scroll] of the prophet" – an idiomatic sense; "the scroll which contains the writings of Isaiah the prophet".
αναπτυξας (αναπτυσσω) aor. part. "unrolling" ευρεν (ευρισκω) aor. "he found"  Jesus found the reading in the scroll indicating it wasn't part of the Pericope.  The scroll would have already been open ready for the reader. It could just mean Jesus "found on the page."
ην γεγραμμενον "it is written" - the imperfect with the perfect participle forms a periphrastic pluperfect. Establishing a tense separation between the reading Jesus found and what was written.
v18 κυριου (ος) gen. "[the Spirit] of the Lord" – ablative of origin, "the Spirit poured out from the Lord.
επι "is on/over [me]" -  Spacial - expressing the fact that the Spirit has come upon Jesus to enable his ministry he is "consecrated", set apart, to perform. This ministry is defined in four infinitival phrases: "to communicate ..", "to proclaim ..", "to release .." and "to preach .. (v19)."
εινεκεν + gen. "because" - for the sake of. Causal clause, "for this reason [he anointed me]." "Anointed" in the sense of commissioned to undertake a particular task. 
ευαγγελισασθαι (ευαγγελιζω) aor. inf. "to preach good news" – i.e. to communicate
απεσταλκεν, "he has sent", In the NT this word usually includes the content of the communication, namely the announcement of the coming kingdom of God and the invitation to enter ("repent and believe"). The word by itself simply means "important communication."
πτωχοις dat. adj. "the poor" identifying for whom the preaching is performed.
κηρυξαι (κηρυσσω) aor. inf. "to proclaim/preach” - a purpose clause.
αφεσιν (ις εως) "freedom,forgiveness, remission, pardon”, from captivity. Clearly tapping into the slavery imagery, exodus and exile, but in the sense of "freedom from slavery to sin", so "forgiveness."
αιχμαλωτοις (ος) dat. "the prisoners" identifying for whom the freedom is performed.
αναβλεψιν (ις εως) "recovery of sight" - restoration of sight- spiritual sense is intended. Due to sin, people are blind to the Word of God and divine revelation is withheld.
τυφλοις dat. adj. "for the blind".
αποστειλαι (αποστελλω) aor. inf. "sent to” εν αφεσει (ις εως) [to release] in freedom, liberty. a modal phrase expressing manner, "to send away in freedom the τεθραυσμενους (θραυω) perf. pas. part. "oppressed" - down-trodden.

v19 κηρυξαι (κηρυσσω) aor. inf. "to proclaim" - the fourth and final infinitive
ενιαυτον (ος) "the year" – era 
κυριου (ος) gen. "of the Lord's" an idiom, "this is God's year to act!"
δεκτον adj. "favor" - acceptable, welcome, agreeable, favorable, acceptable", the year in which God's will and purpose in Christ is operative for salvation. This may relate to the fulfilment of Jubilee, Leviticus 25, the fiftieth year when slaves are released, debts cancelled, etc. In Christ, Jubilee is spiritually realized, which, of course, is the point Jesus draws from the texts.

v20 πτυξας (πτυσσω) aor. part. "he rolled up [the scroll]" - temporal, so when.
αποδους (αποδιδωμι) aor. part. "gave it back to".υπηρετη (ης ου) "the assistant”
εκαθισεν (καθιζω) aor. "sat down" - he sat down. took the preacher's seat!
παντων gen. adj. "[the eyes] of everyone" ησαν ατενιζοντες "were fixed [on him]" – i.e. focused. a periphrastic imperfect. The word expresses an intense focused gaze and is used by Luke at important moments when people's attention is concentrated.

v21 ηρξατο (αρχω) aor. "he began" The use of this word differs depending on the context. Often it serves to emphasize the importance of what is said. 
σημερον adv. "today" - emphatic serving to underline the fact that the fulfilment of Isaiah's prophecy is palpable.
πεπληρωται (πληροω) perf. pas. "is fulfilled" – completed happening now.
εν τοις ωσιν υμων "in your hearing" – literally in the ears.  It is unclear what is "in the ears." Is it scripture, or that which is fulfilled. Probably the latter - the promise is being realized at the moment of their hearing. 

v22 εμαρτυρουν (μαρτυρεω) imperf. "spoke well of" - witnessing, bearing testimony to, speaking of. What better place than a synagogue to gather a quorum of witnesses to the truth!   Yet, the question that follows evidences skepticism on the part of the congregation, so possibly "everyone noticed what he said", a dative of disadvantage; "everyone spoke up against him" as they 
εθαυμαζον (θουμαζω) imperf. "were amazed" - ongoing action. Amazement is an important initial response to the gospel; the kind of response a person makes when confronted with theophany. Mark plays with this response: his gospel begins and ends with people being amazed; "amazement" is a sot of pre faith response.
της χαριτος (ις ιτος) gen. "[the words] of grace”. Possibly an objective genitive, so "words about grace". The word "grace" χαριτος is translated in many ways: "winning words" ,"well spoken", " wonderful things said", "beautiful words", "astonished by his eloquence", "the words of charm" – idiomatically - "They were astonished words of such grace should fall from his lips".
τοις εκπορευομενοις (εκπορευομαι) pres. part. "that came

ουχι "[Isn't this Joseph's son?]" - This negation is used where a question presumes a positive answer. The question evidences the skepticism of the congregation. Familiarity breeds contempt.

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