Greek Study Luke 11:1-13
v1 και εγενετο (γινομαι) aor. "once upon a time".
προσευχομενον (προσευχομαι) pres. part. "praying" - a present periphrastic construction, underlining the durative aspect of the verb.
εν τοπω τινι "in a certain place" –an indefinite location (note previo0us “certain village” so it could be a wlel-known place, a literalry way of saying “it goes without saying that he was praying and where he was praying”.)
των μαθητων (ης ου) gen. "[one] of his disciples" διδαζον (διδασκω) aor. imp. "teach [us]" - imperative aorist indicating urgency.
προσερχεσθαι (προσερχομαι) pres. inf. "to pray" - The request is prompted by the fact that the disciples once again finding Jesus at prayer.
v2 Πατερ (πατηρ) voc. "Father" an affectionate use, maybe "Daddy", although an adult would not use this word in the childish manner. Such an intimate address to Yahweh is revolutionary, although there are some OT precedents; eg, Ps.89:26, Jer. 3:4, 19. Jesus taught his disciples to address God as "our Father", but never included himself in this. In Luke Jesus always addresses God as "my Father."
αγιασθητω (αιαζω) aor. pas. imp. "hallowed be" - revered, glorified, sanctified. The aorist indicates a past eschatological action with ongoing recognition.
το ονομα (α ατος) "[your] name" as in the commandments
η βασιλεια (α) "[your] kingdom" - Most commentators understand the kingdom of God in the sense of "God's righteous rule" or eschatological rule of God through Christ. The phrase "kingdom of God" is used by Luke 31 times, "kingdom" alone is used 6.
ελθετω (ερχομαι) aor. imp. "come" - be inaugurated although the kingdom, in the sense of God's eschatological reign - the sense here is likely to be realized.
v3 διδου (διδωμι) pres. imp. "give" - present tense is durative, so "continually give."
το καθ ημεραν "with each day" - "day by day."
τον επιουσιον adj. "daily" - remembering the provision of Manna for Israel? In the NT the provision is not so much physical bread as spiritual eg. the gifts of the Spirit. Other interpretations have been suggested and tend to be based on the use of "daily", a word that remains somewhat a mystery.
v4 αφες (αφιημι) aor. imp. "forgive" - the aorist imperative encapsulates the whole of the action and therefore leans toward an eschatological forgiveness. For the daily forgiveness of sins an imperfective tense would have been used.
αυτοι "we ourselves” – for emphasis
αφιομεν (αφιημι) pres. "forgive" - durative so "practice forgiveness".
οφειλοντι (οφειλω) pres. part. "who sins against" – NOT debts, the word "debt" and "sin" were interchangeable for Second Temple Jews, not in classical Greek. This is why Luke replaces Matthew's "debts" with "sins".
μη εισενεγκης (εισφερω) aor. subj. "lead us not" – a prohibitive subjunctive that forms a prohibition covering not the commencement of an action as in "do not begin to", but the whole of the action as in "do not let us be overcome by..."
πειρασμον (ος) "temptation" The request is not that we be spared tests, since tests are promised, but that we not succumb to them.
v5 κιχρημι aor. imp. "lend" - allow me to have the use of…"
v7 κακεινος "the one [inside]" – a derogatory or sarcastic reference.
αποκριθεις (αποκρινομαι) aor. pas. part. "answers" -attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the main verb "may say", pleonastic (redundant).
μη ... παρεχε (παρεχω) pres. imp. "don't bother" - durative expressing ongoing trouble. The image is a small house where opening the door will wake everyone.
μοι dat. pro. "me" - to/for me. Dative of indirect object / interest, disadvantage.
ου δυναμαι pres. "I am not able” possibly stronger; "I won't "
ναστας (ανιστημι) aor. part. "get up".
v8 αναστας (ανιστημι) aor. part. "[he will not] rise up and [give]".
δια το + inf. "because of [friendship]" – on account of...
την αναιδειαν (α) "shameless audacity" a hapax legomenon. A disputed translation which is why numerous translations propose: "persistence", "boldness", "shamelessness" in the sense that making such a demand at midnight is any of those. The illustration does not teach that the man in bed is supposed to represent God; this is a sermon illustration. The point is if a friend will comply with a difficult request (even belatedly) what more can you expect of God?
εγερθεις (εγειρω) aor. pas. part. "he will surely get up" – literally “rise from bed”.
v9 αιτειτε (αιτεω) pres. imp. "ask" - an ongoing process, "make it your habit to ask".
δοθησεται (διδωμι) fut. pas. "it will be given" - a theological passive - God as agent.
v10 α αιτων (αιτεω) pres. part. "[everyone] who asks" - the one asking.
λαμβανει (λαμβανω) pres. "receives" is iterative, expressing repeated action.
τω κρουοντι (κρουω) dat. pres. part. " the one knocking"
ανοιγησεται (ανοιγω) fut. pas. "[it] will be opened" - a theological passive.
v11 αιτησει (αιτεω) fut. "if [your son] asks for" - deliberative future. The original construction was possibly a Semitic conditional sentence with the apodosis in the form of a question, "if any father among you is asked by his son for a fish, will he give him a serpent instead "? The syntax of the sentence is difficult, as if Luke got lost in the grammar.
ιχθυν (υς υος) "a fish" – or eel
v13 διδοναι (διδωμι) pres. inf. "[know] how to give".
ποσω μαλλον "how much more" - the key to understanding the passage as a whole. ο εξ ουρανου "[your Father] in heaven"
πνευμα αγιον "the Holy Spirit" - as opposed to Matthew's "good gifts." Luke it more about the "Holy Spirit"
τοις αιτουσιν (αιτεω) pres. part. "[to] those asking"