v24 αλλα εν εκειναις ταις ημεραις ”But in those days…” θλιψιν ”tribulation
σκοτισθησεται "it shall be darkened” - 3rd person singular passive tense, a current reality that impacts the future, so likely a reference to the darkening of the skies during the destruction of Jerusalem.
v25 πιπτοντες ”falling” σαλευθησονται ”[the heaven] shall be shaken (passive) as above, a reference to the destruction of the temple. God is NOT in his heaven and all is NOT right with the world!
v26 οψονται ”They shall see…” in the destruction there will be seen a glimpse of the coming glory of God, perhaps a reference back to Ezekiel, witnessing the ‘shekihah’ of God leaving the temple in advance of the Babylonian destruction.
v27 τοτε αποστελει τους αγγελους ”and then He shall send the angels” a Semiticism.
v29 ιδητε ταυτα ”Seeing this” – beholding, witnessing… γινομενα γινωσκετε ”you will know and in that knowledge” – an idiom, the knowledge will be that which ‘opens your eyes’. Perhaps a reference back to Eden; that in that in eating they ‘knew” the difference between good and evil?
v30 αμην λεγω υμιν a semeticsm, “honestly”
v32 Here Jesus makes the point that no one, , not even he, knows εκεινης, "that" particular day or hour. Given the context, "that" most likely refers to the destruction of Jerusalem temple which was the focus of the disciples' question in v4 ("know that it is near", v29).
δε begins a collection of independent sayings connected with a particle or conjunction (and so untranslated)..
περι (gen.) about, concerning. ημερας εκεινης "that day" - an Old Testament term often used for the day of divine judgment. Here it refers to the destruction of Jerusalem and by implication the Parousia. The addition of "hour" emphasizes the New Testament theme of its unexpected coming.
οιδεν (οιδα) perf. "knows" - the clarity of "no one knows" puts an end to speculation, (although many still enjoy this fruitless pastime).
ο υιος "the Son" - the only time the shortened title "the Son" is used in Mark..
ει μη "but [only the Father]"
v33 In this next saying Jesus makes the point that ignorance of the date of the Parousia is no excuse for being unprepared, but a reason (γαρ) for vigilance.
βλεπετε (βλεπω) pres. imp. "beware" – literally "keep your eyes open”.
αγρυπνειτε (αγρυπνεω) pres. imp. "be alert" as opposed to not! The question is in what sense? Vigilantly tending our faith is the probable answer.
γαρ "for" - a causal clause explaining the why.
ποτε εστιν (ειμι) "when [that time] will come" – i.e. we don't know the timetable.
v34 A short pericope added to develop the exhortation to watchfulness, v34-36 consists of a parable, v34, an explanation, v35, an application and v36 – so this may have come from a different sources, best read as a whole. The point is that the future belongs to God.
ως "it is like" – a comparative serving to introduce a parable.
ανθρωπος (ος) "a man" - the subject of a rather complex sentence, which makes a simple point.
αφεις (αφιημι) aor. part. "going away" – literally “to abandon or give up” often translated in the NT as “forgive”. He commissions his slaves to look after his affairs; "having left “abandoned” his property and given its management to his servants...”
την εξουσιαν (α) "[each with his assigned task]" - [to each one] the authority [of his work].
ενετειλατο (εντελλομαι) aor. "commands, orders”.
τω θυρωρω (ος) "the door-keeper” a dative of direct object after the verb - a particular slave with a special job. This person guarded the entrance of the courtyard to a wealthy home or combined homes.
ινα + subj. "so to [keep watch]" - an object clause expressing what the "man" commands "the one at the door" to do.
v35 ουν "therefore" γρηγορειτε pres. imp. act. "keep watch" like a guard we must keep watch for the coming of a thief or the return of the master.
της οικιας (α) gen. "[the owner] of the house" -
η "whether" - Used 4 times so "either .... or .... or ..... or ....." identifying the four Roman watches of the night.
v36 ελθων (ερξομαι) aor. act. part. "having come” - adverbial, temporal.
εξαιφνης adv. "suddenly".
μη .... ευρη (ευρισκω) aor. sub. act. "do not be discovered" a subjunctive of prohibition expressing a doubtful assertion, usually expressed by ινα μη, "lest".
καθευδοντας (καθευδω) he find you "sleeping"
v37 This saying sums up the theme of watchfulness. As noted, "being alert" is best understood as maintaining the faith as his coming will consume those without. Believers are to be "on the job."
γρηγορειτε (γρηγορεω) pres. imp. "Watch!"