On Tuesday morning the pastors of Lutheran Saints in Ministry gather in Fairborn Ohio to discuss the texts for Sunday.

These are the contributions that are brought to the table.

Tuesday, November 11, 2014

Matthew 25:14-30 Greek Studies -- Pr. Fourman

Matthew 25:14-30

The parable of the talents

v14 οσπερ γαρ "Again it will be like" - as for. This phrase is probably used to parallel the introduction of the preceding parable, indicating that we are dealing with a kingdom parable and not a teaching parable. 
αποδημων (αποδημεω) pres. part. "going on a journey" - adjectival, attributive, limiting "man". The word is used of moving away from one's own district.
δουλους (ος) "servants" – here "slaves" is inappropriate, so think "associate".
παρεδωκεν (παραδιδωμι) aor. "give, deliver to”. may be stretched to mean "entrusted" although this is reading into the parable.
τα υπαρχοντα (υπαρχω) pres. part. "property" – idiom, "what belongs to someone" i.e . "property, possessions."

v15 ω  μεν ..... δε .... δε ....."[to one] ... [to another] .... [and to another]" - on the one hand ..... but on the other .... and then on the other hand, a comparative construction.
ταλαντα (ον) "talents (bags of gold)" - a unit of exchange which varied in value; the word can be used of money or silver or a weight of between 26 and 36 kilos of copper, silver or gold. We think of a talent as skills or mental powers a meaning which from this parable. 
εκαστω dat. adj. "each" – a dative of indirect object/interest, he gave gold to each.
kατα + acc. "according to [his]"
δυναμιν (ις εως) "ability" (literally power).

v16 ο λαβων pres. part. "the man who had received" πορευθεις (πορευομαι) aor. part. "went [at once]" - attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the verb "worked". Possibly temporal and linked to ευθεως, "immediately", so 15 & 1`6 translate: “Then, the servant who had received the five talents, immediately went and put the money to work which had been entrusted to him."
ηργασατο (εργαζομαι) aor. "put his money to work".

v17 ωσαυτως adv. "so also" – likewise ο "the one αλλα pro. "[two] more" - [two] others.

v18 δε "but" ο λαβων (λαμβανω) aor. part. "the man who had received" το εν "the one
απελθων (απερχομαι) aor. part. "went off
αργυριον "money" – lit. silver, but can mean money in general. The normal way to hide money from thieves was to bury it, and silver could be buried without damage.
απελθων (απερχομαι) aor. part. "went off" and dug a hole.
του κυριου (ος) gen. "[his] master's [money]"

v19 μετα + acc. "After [much time]" – a temporal use of the preposition, the settling of accounts follows a long interim. The ‘between times” is once again at the heart of this story….like last week’s story about the in between times of his announced coming and his actual coming, the question is asked once again, “what will you do with your time as you wait?”  This being a kingdom parable no weight is given to the delay nor any indication of what a "long time" might actually be.
μετ (μετα) + gen. "[settled accounts] with" - association; "with them" - a technical use meaning "to make a reckoning."

v20 ο .... λαβων (λαμβανω) aor. part. "the man who had received [the five talents]" - προσελθων (προσερχομαι) aor. part. "having approached”. The participle expresses action accompanying the verb "brought".
λεγων (λεγω) pres. part. "he said" μοι dat. pro. "[you entrusted] me" indirect object.
αλλα adj. "[five] others [more].

v21 αυτω dat. pro. "[His master replied]" - indirect object.
ευ adv. "well done".
Epi + acc. "with [few things]
καταστησω (καθιστημι) fut. "I will put [you] in charge" – the reward is greater responsibilities within the household
πολλων adj. "many things" Note that the “greater responsibilities” awarded to the two faithful servants are not necessarily the same.
του κυριου (ος) gen. "[your] master's" χαραν (α) "happiness" - joy. The second of the two rewards is the pleasure/delight of the master, cf. Jn.15:11. Possibly "joy" here means "feast", so "the happiness of the heavenly banquet", of course, the word also means “grace” and “gift”.

v22-23 The second servant deals with two talents the reward is the same.

v24 προσελθων (προσερχομαι) aor. part. "then ...... came" - having come. temporal.
ο ειληφως (λαμβανω) perf. part. "the man who had received". Note the tense change from aorist to perfect, expressing the fact that he is the man who has received a talent of which he has made no use.
σκληρος adj. "hard, severe” - saying the master harvests where he has not sown, the servant is possibly saying the master is an exploiter. 
θεριζων (θεριζω) pres. part. "reaping. as with "gathering", is adjectival, attributive, limiting the phrase "you are a hard man." The imagery is of a farm-owner who sows a crop without actually scattering the seed and harvests it without actually winnowing the chaff from the grain - a man with an eye to business who picks up profits in all sorts of places.
οπου ..... οθεν adv. "where [you have not sown and gathering] where"

v25 φοβηθεις (φοβεομαι) aor. pas. part. "I was afraid"  The servant was debilitated by fear and therefore did not act as required.
απελθων (απερχομαι) aor. part. "and went out" i.e. "I went away and hid."
ιδε "behold". ο σον adj. "that which belongs to you".

v26 αποκριθεις (αποκρινομαι) aor. pas. part. "he replied" – a Semitic construction.
οκνηρε adj. "lazy

v27 εδει "[you] should [have]" - βαλειν (βαλλω) aor. inf. "have put" deposited.
τα αργυρια (ον) "money" - The plural indicates that money is in mind, i.e. "silver coins".
τοις τραπεζιταις (ης ου) dat. "with the bankers" - 
ελθων (ερχομαι) aor. part. "when I returned" ( a theme here – the return of the delayed master is sudden, and proper preparation is advised. 
τον εμον "it" - that which was mine. συν + dat. "with [interest]".

v28 τω εξοντι (εξω) pres. part. "to the one who has [ten bags]

v29 γαρ "for" - serving here as a connective, this application was likely not part of the original parable.  
τω ... εχοντι (εχω) dat. pres. part. "[everyone] who has" - a substantive, dative of indirect advantage, with the present tense being durative and so expressing an ongoing action.
περισσευθησεται (περισσευω) fut. pas. "he will have an abundance" - the reward is undefined; so "more than enough".
του μη εχοντος (εχω) gen. pres. part. "whoever does not have" - serves as a substantive standing in apposition to the genitive αυτου, "him".

v30 τον αχρειον adj. "useless [servant]
εξωτερον adj. "outside, [into the darkness]" - the outer [the darkness]. The point is that at the coming of the kingdom there will be a consequential accounting.

των οδοντων (ους οδος) gen. "[weeping and gnashing/grinding] of teeth" The genitive is usually taken as verbal, objective. Here describing a situation of doom; pain, and anger. The phrase is used a number of times in Matthew ( 8:12, 13:42, 50, 22:13, 24:51) and may reflect a popular proverb of the day expressing extreme grief. It is used by Jesus to express the grief that follows rejection by God. 

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