Greek Study Luke 1:26-38
v26 Γαβριηλ "Gabriel" - This angel does not fit Hebrew usage, Raphael is the closest, Tob.5:4
απεσταλη (αποστελω) aor. "sent" - echoes of Daniel 10:11-12.
v27 παρθενον (ος) "virgin" - Mary's virginity is noted by Luke, not because virginity is worthy in or that she was spiritually deserving but to emphasize miracle. Elizabeth was barren, Mary was a virgin. The Gk. word does not actually mean “virgin” but unmarried woman who may or may not be a virgin. Isaiah 7:14, states "a maiden shall conceive", again unclear, but early believers never wavered on the issue of the virgin birth. It was, in fact, the origin of the first great internecine war, “θεοτοκοσ”.
εμνηστευμενην (μνηστευω) perf. pas. part. "pledged to be married" - participle is attributive limiting "virgin". The custom was betrothal at 13 marriage at 14.
ανδρι (ηρ δρος) dat. "to a man" - ex "from [a descendant of David]" expressing origin. Establishing Jesus' Davidic heritage - that Joseph was not the genetic father is of small matter to the Jewish mind as an adopted child was accorded the same rights as a natural child.
της παρθενου (ος) gen. "the virgin's [name]" – was Μαριαμ "Mary" – meaning "excellence". Luke’s habit of providing specifics(like names) attests to his historian’s POV.
v28 εισελθων (εισερχομαι) aor. part. "went [to her]" - an attendant circumstance participle,. The verb is used mainly of entering into an area, rather than approaching, so "He went in to her".
χαιρε (α) pres. imp. "Greetings" (joy! Delight!) possibly an imperative, a call to joy.
καχαριτωμενη (χαριτοω) perf. pas. part. "you who are highly favored" - not because of who she is, but because of the child she carries- so graced.
v29 διεταραχθη (διαταρασσω) aor. pas. "was greatly perplexed”. by the angel's words, not so much his presence; the words terrify her, hence the the angel tells her not to be afraid.
διελογιζετο (διαλογιζομαι) imperf. "wondered" debated(?)imperfect carries a durative sense, so an ongoing, continuing ‘pondering”. Idiomatically, “she gave it a lot of thought”.
ποταπος pro. "what kind of" - an interrogative adjective forming an indirect question.
ο ασπασμος (ος) "greeting" - the salutation.
ει[η (ειμι) opt. "[this] might be" - a subjunctive verb to-be normally is used, Luke uses the optative in indirect questions.
v30 μη φοβου (φοβεομαι) pres. imp. "do not be afraid" - literally "stop being anxious." Fear is a normal response to divine visitation.
γαρ for. conjunction serves to introduce a causal clause explaining why Mary should stop being anxious.
ευρες (ευισκω) aor. "found" - Mary found, in the sense of received grace; the idea is of the bestowal of favors from a superior to an inferior, apart from any worthiness in the inferior to receive them. This to emphasize the grace of God.
παρα + dat. "with [God]" - not expressing association but in the sense of "a participant whose viewpoint is relevant to an event", so " God has chosen you for a very precious privilege".
v31 και ιδου "and behold.
συλλημψη εν γαστρι "you will be with child" - the language implies nothing abnormal which is in line with Luke's playing down of the virgin birth. The language reflects Old Testament usage, eg. Gen.16:11, Isa.7:14. "You are going to be the mother of a son".
καλεσεις (καλεω) fut. "you are to give" - the future tense here carries the imperative.
αυτου gen. pro. "him - genitive is possessive.
Ιησουν (Ιησους) acc. Joshua (Yahweh is savior).
v32 ουτος demonstrative pro. "he" - this one μεγας adj. "[will be] great" - Possibly just "he will grow up".
κληθησεται (καλεω) fut. pas. "will be called" - "recognized to be".
υιος (ος) "the Son" accusative case would be expected, but here functioning as a subject complement, see Culy.
υψιστου gen. adj. "of the Most High" - genitive is adjectival, relational. The context indicates that here it refers to God as a proper noun without a definite article. Likely a messianic title.
δωσει (διδωμι) fut. "will give" - "αυτω dat. pro. "him" τον θρονον "the throne" - Probably idiomatic; "ruling authority".
v33 βασιλευσει (βασιλευω) fut. "he will serve as a king, reign. (Luke understands something most Americans forget, that Christ's kingdom transcends nationalism). επι + acc. "over" - Used here of exercising control or authority, "over, with responsibility for."
εις τους αιωνας "forever" – a common phrase meaning "forever."
αυτου gen. pro. "his" - genitive is possessive της βασιλειας (α) gen. "kingdom" - of the kingdom [of him] a genitive of reference, serves to tie this clause into the preceding clause and thus its central idea of the kingship of Christ. Although the word rightly refers to the domain of Christ's reign, his lordship remains the focus. Note the parallelism between "house of Jacob", a traditional term for the house of Israel and "kingdom [of God]".
v34 πως ad. "how [will this be]" επει "since" ου γινωσκω pres. "I am a virgin" - [a man I do not know]. Idiom; "I have not had sexual intercourse with a man", the present tense, being durative, carries the idea "I am not having, ie. she has had and continues to have no intercourse man. This usage of the word "know" is Semitic and Hellenistic. Mary's response raises a problem. Why would she stress her present virginity given that the promised conception is future and she will "know" Joseph soon, following the period of engagement? Some commentators suggest a Luken literary device to emphasize her virginity but it is also possible that she has misunderstood the time frame, or understood her conception to be an immediate occurrence.
v35 αποκριθεις (αποκρινομαι) aor. pas. part. "answered" - Semitic construction.
επελευσεται (επερχομαι) fut. "will come" - maybe from Isaiah 32:15, of the Spirit coming upon the wilderness such that the desert blooms, blooming spiritually in the realization of the kingdom, or even of the Spirit coming upon someone to prophecy or perform the will of God in a certain situation. There are no references of the Spirit coming upon someone to conceive a child.
δυναμις (ις εως) "power" - can function as an equivalent expression to spirit; "the (holy) spirit of God is a term for God himself as operating with effect in the world.
υψιστου gen. adj. " the Most High" - επισκιασει (επισκιαζω) fut. "will overshadow" There is a possible sexual image here, but it may not be intended. The presence and power of God will tabernacle with Mary, she will experience the Shekinah, the presence of the divine in the cloud that covers a faithful Israel. Here the Spirit is depicted as life-giving.
διο και "therefore” with και introducing a logical conclusion.
το ... αγιον adj. "the holy one" = child - adjective functions as a substantive.
το γεννωμενον (γενναω) pres. pas. part. "to be born" - εκ σου, "out of you." the total phrase stands as the subject of "will be called." substantive with αγιον as its complement, "the child to be born will be called holy."
κληθησεται (καλεω) fut. pas. "will be called" -will be recognized to be is better "Son of God" as the predicate of the verb "called", but it is possibly a secondary predicate, with the primary predicate being the adjective "holy".
θεου (ος) gen. "[Son] of God" - genitive of relationship. This is the first usage of the title "Son of God" in Luke.
v36 Ελισαβετ "Elizabeth" – a hanging nominative later picked up by the pronoun αυτη; "Elizabeth your relative, she also has conceived." Used in the Gk. to "introduce the topic of what follows".
σου gen. pro. "your" - The genitive is adjectival, relational η συγγενις (ις ιδος) "relative" - The kinship is unstated except to say that Jesus and John are related through their mothers.
εν + dat. "in [her old age]" preposition here forms a temporal phrase.
αυτη τη καλουμενη (καλεω) dat. pres. pas. part. "she who was said [to be barren]" - the one called [barren]. a relative clause. Mary has not asked for a sign, but she is given one (as is Ahaz in Isaiah).
στειρα dat. adj. "barren" - the participle is passive and thus the subject, τη, "the one" (in apposition to αυτη, "her") receives the action.
v37 οτι "for" - ουκ .... παν ρημα (a atoV) "nothing" – lit. no word promise αδυνατησει (αδυνατεω) fut. "is impossible". possibly alluding to Gen.18:14, but also possibly Jer.32:17. The words probably relate directly to Elizabeth's pregnancy, rather than Mary's, but obviously apply to Mary as well. This should not be used to imply God will do the impossible things of our imagination, it is best to translate the phrase as "no promise from God is devoid of power".
v38 ιδου "behold” κυριου (ος) gen. "[I am] the Lord's" - adjectival expressing relationship.
η δουλη "slave girl"; idiomatic: I belong to the Lord body and soul.
γενοιτο (γινομαι) aor. opt. "may it be" optative serving to express a wish. Mary here is behaving as a servant of the Lord by submitting to his will.
μοι dat. pro. "to me" κατα + acc. "as" σου gen. pro. "you [have said]" i.e. "the promise given by you."
απο + gen. " departed] from [her] separation, "away from."