On Tuesday morning the pastors of Lutheran Saints in Ministry gather in Fairborn Ohio to discuss the texts for Sunday.

These are the contributions that are brought to the table.

Friday, December 26, 2014

Luke 2:22-40 Greek Study - Pr. Fourman

Luke 2:22-40

v22 του καθαρισμου (ος) gen. "purification" - genitive is epexegetic; "the days which consist of the cleansing of them." A woman is ceremonially cleansed 40 days after the birth of a boy child, and 80 days after a girl. Meanwhile, she must not touch anything holy or enter the temple, cf. Lev.12.
παραστησαι (παριστημι) aor. inf. "to present" - the infinitive is adverbial, forming a purpose clause. Some argue no tradition existed in Israel, cf Neh.10:35-36  (redeeming a child) so also Ex.13:15 and 1Sam.1-2.
τω κυριω dat. "to the Lord" - Dative of indirect object. The presentation of Jesus has nothing to do with the purification of Mary, to which v24 applies.
v23 κυριου (ος) gen. "of the Lord" - genitive is ablative of source/origin.
διανοιγον (διανοιγω) pres. part. "[every] firstborn [male]" literally [every male] opening [womb] κληθησεται (καλεω) fut. pas. "will be calledαγιον adj. "holy
τω κυριω (ος) "to the Lord" (dative of interest) – so  lit. "every male opening the womb, shall be called holy to the Lord

v24 του δουναι (διδωμι) aor. inf. "to give” – a genitive articular infinitive forming a purpose clause. This offering is most likely for the postnatal purification service (Lev.12:8). 
τρυγονων (ων ονος) gen. "[a pair] of doves
περιστερων (α) gen. "[two young] pigeons" - The use of pigeons was a concession to the poor.
v25 ω ονομα (α) "named [Simeon]
δικαιος adj. "righteous" Luke uses this word of Zechariah, Elizabeth, Joseph of Arimathea and Cornelius, in the general sense of "good", "honorable", "just", rather than "right before God".
ευλαβης adj. "[and] reverent”  literally conscientiously observant to emphasize the proper piety of Simeon.
προσδεχομενος (προσδεχομαι) pres. part. "expecting” –not passive but an "expectant waiting". The impression is that there is a group around Anna waiting for the παρακλησιν "consolation /redemption" of Israel, along the lines of Is.40:1, 49:13.
πνευμα ην αγιον επ αυτον "the Holy Spirit was upon him". Unlike Elizabeth and Zechariah who are "filled" in the Old Testament sense of the Spirit coming upon a person to achieve a specific end, here the Spirit is "upon" Simeon. There is no sense Simeon is given the Spirit in response to faith. 
v26 κεχρηματισμενον (χρηματιζω) perf. pas. part. "it had been revealed" – A perfect participle, with the imperfect of the verb "to be" forms a periphrastic pluperfect; a construct used to emphasize a durative, often used of divine revelation.
μη ιδειν (ειδον) aor. inf. "that he would not see" - the infinitive forms an object clause expressing what the Holy Spirit revealed.
πριν αν ιδη/ (ειδον) aor. subj. "before he might see. - an indefinite temporal clause. κυριου (ος) gen. "[the] Lord's [Messiah]" - probably ablative, so “whose status as the messiah comes from the Lord cf. 1Sam.24:6, 10. 

v27 εν τω/ εισαγαγειν (εισαγω) aor. inf. "when [the parents] brought in" .
Ιησουν (ους) "[the child] Jesus. Standing in apposition to "child".
του ποιησαι (ποιεω) aor. inf. "to do" - to carry out to ειθισμενον (εθιζω) perf. pas. part. "the thing customaryτου νομου (ος) gen. "of the Law"- epexegetic, explaining what customs. Luke uses a ‘high’ Greek so he is explaining to those who have little understanding of the Jewish Customs of which he is writing.
v28 εδεξατο (δεχομαι) aor. mid. "took him" - the word meaning "received" implies a presentation i.e. the child is offered to God by presenting him to Simeon. 
ευλογησεν τον θεον (ευλογεω) aor. "praised God" - also "bless", in the sense of call down God's grace, although the Nunc Dimittis does not present as a blessing, but rather a psalm of praise. 

v29 Luke’s 3rd psalm of praise, the Nunc Dimittis uses much the same language as the Magnificat and the Benedictus. All three praise God for his intervention in human affairs. δεσποτα (ης ου) voc. "Sovereign Lord" – also a Roman/Greek political title.
νυν απολυεις (απολυω) pres. "you now release” nun is emphatic and with the present tense of "release " infers impending death. But it may also be saying Simeon is released from his role as the Lord's watchman for the coming messiah.
ειρηνη  "peacefully" here means "well-being" possessed by a person favored by God, cf. Gen.46:30.

v30 το σωτηριον adj. "salvation" not "savior" but "God's work.

v31 ο ητοιμασας (ετοιμαζω) "which you have prepared" – (established, exhibited) The salvation of v30 is not so much prepared as displayed for all to see (my eyes have seen…) in this child.
των λαων (ος) gen. pl. "[all] the people" - genitive is possessive in it belongs to all people. Normally the word means Israel, especially in the singular, here the plural means Gentiles.

v32 φως "a light" - " stands in apposition to "salvation" and indicates a revelation of God.
αποκαλυψιν (ις εως) + gen. "revelation" - disclosure, uncovering, taking out into the open, making fully known, unveiling.
εθνων (ος) gen. "to the nations" – i.e. Gentiles ".
δοξαν (α) "glory" - parallel to "light". 
λαου (ος) "of [your] people" Ισραηλ gen. "Israel".
v33 θαυμαζοντες (θαυμαζω) pres. part. "[they] wondered" - were amazed, a periphrastic imperfect construction emphasizing aspect. Joseph and Mary are viewed as a single unit - a married couple.
toiV λαλουμενοις (λαλεω) pres. pas. part. "the thing being said" - participle functions as a substantive; "they were astonished to hear what was said”.

v34 ευλογησεν (ευλογεω) aor. "blessed" κειται (καιμαι) "[this child] is destined". The image of the ‘stumbling-block’ is possibly behind this verse and therefore the word may be understood as "placed", like a stone placed during the building of a wall, cf. Isa.8:14-15. Simeon's words address the future of Israel where the self-righteous fall flat and the humble rise up at the coming of God’s messiah.
σημειον (ον) "a sign" - here meaning "ensign, banner."
αντιλεγομενον (αντιλεγω) perf. pas. part. "that will be spoken against". 

v35 διαλογισμοι (ος) "thoughts" – this word tends to have a negative sense, so this "sign opposed" will expose the hidden intent of those aligned against God’s will.
διελευσεται (διερχομαι) fut. mid. "will pierce" – an idiom, "And you Mary, will suffer as if you had been stabbed.

v36 προφητις (ις ιδος) "a prophetess" - female prophets in scripture is one indicator that the ‘simplistic’ approach to male authority in the church is wrong. 
προβεβηκυια (προβαινω) perf. part. "she was [very] old" - a sign of God's blessing and wisdom. Luke balances male and female roles in this passage as elsewhere.
ζησασα (ζαω) aor. part. "she had lived" - Anna is viewed as a woman of advanced years because from her puberty she lived with her husband 7 years prior to becoming a widow and then another 84, which makes her, 104 or older?

v37 του ιερου (ον) gen. "[she never left] the temple" - λατρευουσα (λατρευω) pres. part. "worshiped" - serving, ministering - participle expressing action accompanying the main verb "was departing", often used of service to God. This word is actually a ministry word, in Anna's case, ministry in the temple is expressed through prayer and fasting.
v38 επιστασα (επιστημι) aor. part. "coming up to them" - attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the main verb .
αυτη τη ωρα dat. "at that very moment" – a dative of time.
ανθωμολογειτο (ανθομολογεομαι) imperf. mid. "she gave thanks" -  durative, expressing ongoing praise and thanksgiving.
τοις προσδεχομενοις (προσδεχομαι) pres. mid. part. "who were looking forward" to
λυτρωσιν (ις εως) "the redemption" – literally ransom - today the word "liberation" would better express its sense.
v40 εκραταιουτο (κραταιοω) imperf. pas. "[grew and] became strong" - mental and moral growth, maturity, even vigor, not muscular strength.
πληρουμενον (πληροω) pres. pas. part. "he was filled" - attendant circumstance participle expressing action 
σοφια (α) dat. "with wisdom" - dative of content; "he advanced in wisdom". 

χαρις (ις ιτος) "the grace" – favor θεου (ος) gen. "of God" - genitive is ablative expressing source.

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