Greek Study John 20:19-31
v19 ουσης (ειμι) when it was evening
τη μια σαββατων "on the first day [of the week]
κεκλεισμενων (κλαιω) gen. perf. pas. part. having been shut the perfect tense emphasizes the locking, now complete.
εστη εις το μεσον stood in the midst carries here both a sense of motion toward and at rest in.
υμιν dat. pro."[peace be] with you" - dative of interest; an idiom meaning "I pray that all may be well for with you".
v20 ειπων (λεγω) aor. part. "after he said [this]"
εχαρησαν (χαιρω) aor. pas. "were overjoyed" - thrilled.
ιδοντες (ειδον) aor. part. "having seen”.
v21 παλιν adv. again καθως "so as" – a comparative.
αποσταλκεν (αποστελλω) perf. "has sent" - perfect tense indicating the action is completed with ongoing ramifications.
καγω and so I adjunctive. πεμπω pres. "I am sending" – an emphatic present tense indicating ongoing action.
v22 ειπων (λεγω) aor. part. "[and] saying that" - participle is adverbial, temporal; "and when he had said this".
ενεφυσησεν (εμφυσαω) aor. "he breathed" – a hapax legomenon, possibly reflecting the divine breath in creation – a clash with Luke's account of Pentecost - one would expect that this is the appropriate moment for the empowering of the disciples for their ministry, but its clash with Luke's Pentecost account is not easy to explain. Pentecost is the moment we witness the outpouring of divine power so maybe John's account is inward?
λαβετε (λαμβανω) aor. imp. "receive" - translation "receive" is ingrained, but possibly "accept", even "welcome" makes more sense.
v23 αν + subj. "if" - a conditional clause, 3rd class, where the condition stated in the "if" clause (protasis) has the probability of coming true; "if, as may be the case, ...... then ....." In English the use of "if" conveys doubt, in the Greek, certainty.
αφητε (αφιημι) aor. subj. "you forgive" - the word order makes "forgive" emphatic. To release a person of the consequence of their sins. This authority is given to the apostles and it is reasonable to argue that it extends to all believers.
τινων gen. pro. "anyone's [sins]" - genitive is possessive.
αφεωνται (αφιημι) perf. pas. "they are forgiven" - a proleptic perfect tense.
κρατητε (κρατεω) pres. subj. "do not forgive"
v24 ο λεγομενος (λεγω) pres. pas. part. "the one called Didymus" the participle serves as a substantive, standing in apposition to "Thomas". As a nickname, "Twin", seems a bit far fetched.
v25 ελεγον (λεγω) imperf. "[the other disciples]said. imperfect may express ongoing action, "they kept saying to him".
εωρακαμεν (οραω) perf. "we have seen" - as with Mary in v18, but these are men so the witnessing holds greater impact.
των ηλων (ος) gen. "[the] nail [marks]" – literally the nail scars.
βαλω (βαλλω) aor. subj. "put [my hand]" – a strong word, so "thrust my hand into his side."
v26 μεθ ημερας "a week later" - after eight days counting the following Sunday.
κεκλεισμενων (λκειω) gen. perf. part. "though [the doors] were locked" - The participle is adverbial, but given that the participle is part of a genitive absolute construction, temporal is more likely; "When the doors were locked, Jesus came and stood among them”.
v27 τω Θωμα (α ας) "to Thomas" - Dative of indirect object.
μη γινου απιστος "stop doubting" - do not generate unbelief; the command takes the present imperative, here the cessation of action, so "stop doubting".
αλλαÄ"but [believe]" – a strong adversative.
v28 ο κυριος (ος) "My Lord" - usually taken as a vocative; "you are the one who rules over me.
v29 μακαριοι adj. "blessed" - a state of joy in response to benefiting from God's favor.
οι μη ιδοντες (ειδον) aor. part. "are those who have not seen" - participle serves as a substantive, the aorist is gnomic, expressing a universal truth.
v30 σημεια (ον) "miraculous signs"- the original ending of John, or at least that secgiton often referred to as the “Book of Signs”..
ενωπιον + gen. "in the presence of [his disciples]" - possibly temporal; "while he was with his disciples."
v31 γεγραπται (γραφω) perf. pas. "written" – the perfect indicating completion of the writing. What is written is written. A very important statement in that it declares John's purpose for writing the book, a purpose which is clearly evangelistic.
ινα + subj. "that [by believing you may have life]" - a purpose clause, but also a consecutive clause expressing result; "and so (as a consequence) gain life by
πιστευοντες (πιστευω) pres. part. " believing" - the participle is modal, expressing manner, so "through this faith".
εν τω ονοματι αυτου "in his name" – the preposition εν may be expressing the sense of corporate union, that is God's gift of eternal life is found in union with his Son - "name" = person; so "in union with the person of Christ". "The name" can also carry the sense " authority of", such that εν would then take an instrumental sense, "by, through, or with = under his authority."