Greek Study Luke 24:36-53
v36 λαλουντων (λαλεω) pres. part. "while [they] were still talking" – a genitive absolute participle, best treated here as a temporal clause, as NIV.
αυτων gen. pro. "them" - of them. The genitive is adjectival, partitive.
αυτοις dat. pro. "[said] to them" - Dative of indirect object.
υμιν dat. pro. "[peace be] to you" - Dative of interest, advantage.
v37 πτοηθεντες (πτοεω) aor. pas. part. "startled" - This substantive participle and the adjective εμφοβοι, "afraid", joined by και, "and", have a similar meaning and are placed together for emphasis, so serving as a compound predicate for the participle γενομενοι, "having become"; i.e. "they shrank back in terror".
θεωρειν (θεωρεω) pres. inf. "[thinking] they saw" - infinitive introduces a dependent statement of perception expressing what they were thinking.
πνευμα (α ατος) "a spirit” in the sense of a disembodied person, i.e. a ghost.
v38 τεταραγμενοι εστε "troubled" - The participle with the present tense of the verb to-be forms a periphrastic perfect, emphasizing durative aspect; "[why] have you been troubled?”
διαλογισμοι αναβαινουσιν εν τη καρδια "why do doubts arise in your minds?" – a Semitism as reasoning for a Jew took place in the heart.
v39 ιδετε (ειδον) aor. imp. "look" – maybe examine my hands and feet.
ψηλαφησατε (ψηλαφαω) aor. imp. "touch" – a rare word in the NT.
πνευμα (α ατος) "a ghost" - in the sense of an independent expression of a person after death. By saying he is not a spirit, Jesus is not implying that ghosts do not exist.
v40 ειπων (ειπον) aor. part. "when he had said" - participle is adverbial, probably temporal.
αυτοις dat. pro. "[he showed] them" – Dative, an indirect object.
v41 απιστουντων (απιστεω) pres. part. gen. "while [they still] did not believe" - a genitive absolute, is usually treated as temporal, - not mean faithless or skeptical but "dumbfounded", I lean toward "incredulous - too good to be true".
θαυμαζοντων (θουμαζω) pres. part. gen. "amazement" - stands with απιστουντων, "disbelieving" So “the disciples were "dumbfounded", overwhelmed in amazement by the presence of a spiritual manifestation of Jesus.” It is probably for this reason that Jesus asks for some food. As to the deception of asking for food when he didn't actually need any, "is there any deceit in taking food, which one does not want, in order to put others, who are needing it, at their ease?" Note, some manuscripts add "and of a honeycomb", but this is possibly a later addition, given that honey was used in the early church in the liturgy of the sacraments. Of course, just because Jesus doesn't need to eat doesn't mean he can't enjoy a meal.
v42 οπτου gen. adj. "[a piece of] broiled [fish]" – the genitive serves as a partitive. (this verse was probably added.)
v43 ενωπιον + gen. "in their presence" - Jesus may have had a meal with the disciples, but this is not the point Luke is making. Jesus, the resurrected Lord, ate in their presence, before their very eyes. He "ate it as they watched".
v44 Ειπεν δε προς ουτους "He said to them" - Some suggest this phrase introduces a new incident, possibly Jesus' farewell words to his disciples before the ascension. The argument can be sustained, but probably the words introduce an immediate sequel.
πληρωθηναι (πληροω) aor. pas. inf. "be fulfilled" infinitive forms a noun clause, subject of the verb "is necessary." The gospel begins with the statement, "the time is fulfilled", that is, the promises in scripture concerning the coming messiah and his kingdom are now being realized in the person of Jesus, and therefore, "the kingdom of God is at hand."
τα γεγραμμενα (γραφω) - perf. pas. part. "that is written" - the participle is adjectival, limiting "everything must be fulfilled". Often used in the perfect of binding legal documents, the authority of which cannot be questioned.
ψαλμοις (ος) "the Psalms" - psalms. Given that Jesus mentions "the Law of Moses" and "the Prophets" it is quite possible that the third section of scripture, namely "the Writings", which includes the Psalms, is intended.
v45 διηνοιξεν (διανοιγω) aor. "he opened" - revealed. sometimes argued as the giving of the Spirit in line with the giving of the Spirit in John's gospel, Pentecost being the empowering of the Spirit. This is unlikely. Either a spiritual gift of understanding, or a simple explanation of how the scriptures are fulfilled in him; "he explained everything to them…
του συνιεναι (συνιημι) pres. inf. "so they could understand".
v46 ουτως adv. "this is what [is written]" - referring to the content of the scriptural teaching concerning Christ, or causal, "because the scripture must be fulfilled".
παθειν (πασχω) aor. inf. "will suffer" - as with "rise" and "will be preached", the infinitive forms a dependent statement of indirect speech expressing what has been written, namely "that the messiah will suffer ....." The accusative ton criston, serves as the subject of the infinitive.
αναστηναι (ανιστημι) aor. inf. "rise". The resurrection is always difficult to source in scripture. Acts refers to Ps.16:10 and 110.1. Biblical theology is the key to sourcing the scriptural support for the resurrection of the messiah. The messiah is representative Israel and his resurrection constitutes the reconstitution of faithful Israel as promised in scripture. Christ, as the remnant is subjected to the bondage of death (Egypt) and now through the cross (Exodus) gains eternal glory (the Promised Land).
τη τριτη ημερα dat. "on the third day" - adverbial, of time.
v47 μετανοιαν (α) "repentance" - Biblical repentance is not so much a feeling sorry, or even a new-year's resolution to behave properly, but is a change of will or direction, a turning from self to Christ.
αμαρτιων (α) gen. "of sins" - genitive is usually treated as verbal, objective, but it can also be viewed as adjectival, limiting "forgiveness" by making it more specific.
κηρυχθηναι (κηρυσσω) aor. inf. "will be preached" - infinitive as with παθειν, "to suffer", cf. v46. The proclamation of God's mercy to the nations fulfills the third element of the promised blessings to Abraham. "And repentance for the forgiveness of sins will be proclaimed to all people of every nation."
αρξαμενοι (αρξω) aor. part. "beginning [at Jerusalem]" - adverbial, best understood as "the mission will start in Jerusalem."
v48 υμεις "you" - emphatic.
τουτων gen. pro. "of these things" - genitive is probably adverbial, expressing respect; "you are witnesses with respect to these things"; of Jesus' passion, resurrection, teachings and work.