On Tuesday morning the pastors of Lutheran Saints in Ministry gather in Fairborn Ohio to discuss the texts for Sunday.

These are the contributions that are brought to the table.

Wednesday, April 6, 2016

John 21:1-19 Greek Text

Greek Study John 21:1-19

v1 μετα ταυτο "after these [things]" - connection to chapter 20.
εφανερωσεν (φανεροω) aor. "appeared" actually a bit stronger than just appeared, more like a revelation. John used this word in previous chapters in regards to miracles but not resurrection appearances.
εφανερωσεν δε ουτως "it happened this way" – i.e. “This is how he revealed himself."

v2 ο λεγομενος (λεγω) pres. pas. part. "called [Didymus]"- the one being called Didymus; - the Greek word for the Hebrew "Thomas", both of which mean "twin", an unusual name to use for a person.
της Γαλιλαιας (α ας) gen. "[Cana] in Galilee" a place John seems enchanted by.
του Ζεβεδαιου (ος) gen. "[the sons] of Zebedee" - genitive is relational: "the sons (οι) of Zebedee." John has not mentioned them before.

v3 αλιευειν (αλιευω) pres. inf. "[I am going] to fish" - infinitive is adverbial.
εξηλθον (εξερχομαι) aor. "they went out" - the disciples are leaving the house they were staying at in Capernaum, probably Peter's.
το πλοιον "the boat" - the definite article implies that this is the boat the disciples used for fishing, possibly owned by one or two of them. 

v4 γενομενης (γινομαι) gen. aor. part."[early in the morning]" – a genitive absolute participle temporal; so "when dawn was already breaking". The editor has used the declinable form of the noun πρωιας, "early" on other occasions specifically on the day of resurrection.

v5 παιδια (ον) "friends" – actually “insignificant ones” usually used to refer to children, but as an intimate title for disciples, not the usual word Jesus uses elsewhere.
μη "[have]not [you any fish]?" - word "have" carries the sense "caught" in this sentence. The negation μη is used in a rhetorical manner, expecting the answer to be "no". 

v6 του πλοιου (ον) gen. "[the right side] of the boat
ελκυσαι (ελκυω) aor. inf. "[they were unable] to haul" – a complimentary infinitive, completing the sense of the verb "they were strong." This construction is often is used in the gospels in reference to drawing people to Christ
των ιχθυων (υς υος) "[the large number] of fish" John loves him some ιXθυσ.

v7 ον ηγαπα ο Ιησους "whom Jesus loved” and who knows what this infers; John sees this person as important and post resurrection links him to Peter.
ακουσας (ακουω) part. "as soon as [Simon Peter] heard [him say]" - adverbial; he presumably still doesn't recognize the risen Lord. So "When Peter heard it was the Lord".
διεζωσατο (δοαζωννυμι) aor. "he wrapped [his outer garment]"- i.e. tucked it up – as Brown suggests "tucking up" clothing to perform a chore, rather than "putting on" byut then Brown is a prude.  Peter is likely wearing a working smock, rather than underclothing and tucks it up under his belt before he εβαλεν (βαλλω) aor. "jumps" (actually “throws” himself) into the sea.

v8 τω πλοιαριω (ον) "[followed] in the boat" they did not swim to shore!
συροντες (συρω) "towing" the των ιχθυων (υς εως) gen. "[net] full of fish".

v9 απεβησαν (αποβαινω) aor. "they disembarked"
ανθρακιαν (α) "a fire of burning coals" – a charcoal fire. 
οψαριον (ον) "fish" - fish and bread are singular, but a collective sense is intended, particularly with bread. The fish is likely fresh but John uses the word for dried fish, same as in the feeding of the 5,000. So what's his point? Likely some symbolic sense is intended. Are the apostles meant to be catching fish for the kingdom, is this a sacramental thing or is this event somehow linked to the feeding of the 5,000 since both feedings happened in or near the same place?

v10 αυτοις "[Jesus said] to them" - ενεγκατε (φερω) aor. imp. "bring" present imperative.
απο "[bring] some [of the fish]" - the preposition serves to identify part of a larger whole. If Jesus had only one fish on the coals the disciples would need to bring some of theirs to have breakfast together. The point of Jesus' request seems to be for the disciples to discover how many fish there were and that the net was not torn (i.e. none got away).

v11 ιχθυων (ος) gen. "[it was full] of [large] fish" εκατον πεντηκοντα τριων "153" – an allegorical meaning seems natural – some commentators move to numerology to unlock the secret of this very specific number; other have suggested it represents the actual number of disciples at this point of the number of ethnicities (nations) then part of the Roman Empire - the fish were large, there were a lot, and (here's the point) none got away! I’ll give St. Augustine the last word; it is "a great mystery." 

v12 δευτε "come" more an exclamation than command, although in the imperative
ουδεις δε "not one but” - the conjunction δε (not found in all texts) functions as an adversative emphasizing that "not one" of των μαθητων (ης ου) gen. "the disciples"
εξετασαι (εξαταζω) aor. inf. "[dared] ask".
ειδοτες (ειδον) perf. part. "they knew" οτι  that

v13 ερχεται (ερχομαι) pres. "[Jesus] came" and λαμβανει (λαμβανω) "took" the verbs are best translated in the historic present. Jesus takes the food and distributes it, functioning as host, as he does in the supper and did at the feeding of the 5,000.

v14 τριτον εφανερωθη (φανεροω) aor. pas. "the third time [Jesus] appeared" interesting how John ignores his appearance to Mary in chapter 20. This reads as if it were a first time appearance so likely an independent account.
εγερθεις (εγαιρω) aor. pas. part. "after he was raised [from the dead]" - participle is adverbial, a possible theological passive, God does the raising. This ends the first story.

v15 Σίμων Ἰωάννου; Simon son of John - the complete mention of his name 3 times is unique, and begins the second resurrection account.
ἀγαπe τούτων ἢ οὗτοι, do you love me more than these? These who? These other disciples? (They are the only ones present).  These accoutrements? The nets and boat for fishing?  These safe choices? It is intentionally vague. Peter’s response φιλῶ amo I love you leaves “these things” unanswered.
βόσκε τὰ ἀρνία μου then feed my lambs 

v16 πάλιν δεύτερον again he asked
ποίμαινε ἀγαπe τούτων do you love me note the shorter, more direct question followed by Peter’s same response, and then Jesus more complete instruction for him to 
  Ποίμαινε τὰ πρόβατά μου tend my sheep (the word ποιμαινε also means to “govern”.)

v17 φιλῶ σε do you love me? note the change of verb from αγαπε to the φιλω of Peter. Peter is troubled Jesus’ third question throws doubt even upon his φιλω − hence his more earnest answer: σὺ πάντα οἶδας you know all things, [so] you know [that] 
Βόσκε τὰ πρόβατά μου [then] feed my sheep - the verbs and cases of this exchange (15-17) are all in the active voice. But there is obviously a difference in the mind of the author between “feeding” and “tending/governing”. For literal shepherds the work overlaps but for figurative shepherds not so much.  I remember learning that in John there is but one shepherd, the Good Shepherd, yet here Jesus is clearly calling Peter to the same line of work as he.

v18 νεώτερος recently born, immature what is Jesus implying?  Peter is rash, as this story implies, but he is not a youth, so an allegorical meaning seems likely. If a faith reference, then it may be about the newly baptized, or newly ordained?
ἐζώννυες gird oneself if this is an idiom it means to “man up”, it literal means to “prepare for work or battle”.  This word is used only one other time in the NT, also referring to Peter, who when delivered from prison by an angel (Acts 12:8) is told to gird himself to go forth and proclaim the Gospel!  
γηράσῃς to grow old another word with an idiomatic and literal meaning, the first is to become “obsolete”, the other to become “infirm”.  I don’t think we can pick and choose, both are idioms or both literal, it is either “immature…obsolete” or “young…old”.  
v19 σημαίνων a sign – a clear Johannine theme.

Ἀκολούθει μοι follow me – an imperative, a command.

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