Greek Study John 14:22-29
v23 εαν + subj. "if [anyone loves me he will obey my teaching]" - if in English expresses doubt.
τον λογον (ος) "[will obey my] teaching" - it is likely that "the word" is interchangeable with the τασ εντολας, "the commandments" such that loving Christ, keeping his word and keeping his commandments amount to the same thing.
ελευσομεθα (ερχομαι) fut. "we will come" - Jesus answers Judas' question. The Western church, following Augustine, holds the view that there is a Trinitarian coming; the Father and the Son come in the Spirit. John doesn't quite say this. There is evidence of a distinction, at least in function, and possibly timing, between the coming of the Father and the Son, and the coming of the Spirit.
v24 ο μη αγαπων (αγαπαω) pres. part. "he who does not love [me will not obey my teaching]" - the participle serves to introduce a negative conditional clause. "Words" is plural so, has John changed the sense of "word" to "words" i.e. Christ's teachings? The trouble is he reverts to "word" again in the second half of the verse. Do we take the second use to mean "doctrine"? Best to press on with the idea that those who do not believe in Christ do not love Christ - those who do not love Christ do not believe in Him.
ο λογος (ος) sing. "the word"
εμος adj. "[is not] my own" αλλα but του ... πατρος (ηρ ρος) gen. "they belong to the Father" genitive is ablative, expressing source/origin.
πεμψαντος (πεμπω) gen. "who sent [me]"
v25 ταυτα "all this" - is a resumptive phrase referring to the words of the preceding
μενων (μενω) pres. part. "while still abiding” παρ (παρα) + dat. "with [you]".
v26 ο δε παρακλητος (ος) masc. sing. "but the counselor" - Paraclete. "spirit" in Greek is neuter, it is important to note that John renders paraclete as masculine - he is a person, not a thing or a power. The word is a verbal adjective functioning as a noun, derived from "to call alongside" therefore counsel, encourage, exhort - there are a number of possible meanings: advocate (probably best), counselor and helping presence.
εκεινος masc. pro. "-" - he [will teach]. John has this pronoun as masculine, so reinforcing the accepted view that "Spirit" is a person and not a thing.
υπομνησει (υπομιμνησκω) fut. "will remember" most commentators take the view that the two functions "teach" and" remind" are synonymous.
v27 ειρηνην (η) "peace" - The greeting of peace, often used in Christian worship, is a formal way of recalling the security and bounty of the coming kingdom. In a piece of realized eschatology, Jesus bequeaths this reality to his disciples.
αφιημι pres. "I leave"
μη ταρασσεσθω (ταρασσω) pas. imp. "do not let [your hearts] be troubled" – a thought is repeated in "do not be afraid", an idiom, don't be a coward!
v28 ηκουσατε (ακουω) aor. "you heard" - that Jesus is going away, has filled them with fear.
προς + acc. "[I am coming back] to [you]" - this return is not the parousia, possibly a reference to the resurrection although more likely of the coming of the Paraclete.
οτι "that [I am going to the Father]" - causal, "because",.
οτι "for" - that. obviously expressing cause/reason; introducing a causal clause explaining why Jesus' surrendering of himself to the cross is not something to prompt fear, namely, "because" all is under the control of the Father.
ο πατηρ μειζων (μεγας) adj. comp. "the Father is greater [than I]" - his obedience, here expressed in the terms of the Father being greater does not make Christ less than deity. Christ functions as the obedient servant of God on our behalf.
v29 ινα + subj. "so that" - a final clause expressing purpose.
οταν + subj. "when [it does happen]" - an indefinite temporal clause.
πιστευσητε (πιστευω) aor. subj. "you will believe" - It unclear what belief is intended. Whatever it is, this revelation will soon be confirmed and thus their faith will be strengthened. Or is Jesus telling the disciples about the future so that when it occurs they will stand firm and not lose faith?