Greek Study Matthew 5:1-10
v1 ιδων (ειδον) "seeing [the crowds]" - a causal clause; "Jesus went up the mountain because he saw the crowds.
το ορος "a mountainside" - the definite article may indicate a particular mountain.
καθισαντος (καθιζω) aor. part. "sat down" participle is adverbial, temporal; "when he sat down his disciples came to him." A teacher sits down to teach.
οι μαθηται "the disciples" - the beatitudes are for the disciples, but are the disciples "poor in spirit", etc.? Some scholars take the view that the beatitudes are statements of grace directed to the disciples, but the Greek is not that specific.
v2 ανοιξας το στομα aor. part. “opening [the mouth] attendant circumstance participle expressing action "he opened his mouth...
εδιδασκεν (διδασκω) imperf. "to teach" the imperfect used here to make the point that the sermon on the mount is a summary of Jesus' teachings.
v3 μακαριοι adj. "blessed" - not the best translation, "fortunate" or "well off", possibly "happy". Jesus is telling his disciples they are fortunate to possess these qualities of life, because in possessing them they inherit God's kingdom.
οι πτωχοι adj. "the poor ones" - those in total poverty, possessing nothing and with no means to earn a living other than by receiving alms.
τω πνευματι (α ατος) dat. "in spirit" - dative is local. To be poor in spirit is to be totally destitute spiritually and recognize the need for a total dependence on God.
αυτων εστιν "theirs is" – in the sense of consequence (not reward).
των ουρανων (ος) gen. "[the kingdom] of heaven" - the eschatological reign of God.
v4 οι πενθουντες (πενθεω) part. "the mourning ones - likely mourning is over sin.
παρακληθησονται (παρακαλεω) fut. pas. "will be comforted" - a divine passive.
v5 οι πραεις (πραυς) adj. "the gentle ones”. a substantive. "Gentle" in the sense of not demanding of God, so "submissive to the will of God".
κληρονομησουσιν την γην "[for they] will inherit the earth" - lit. receive by lot, the consequence of covenant inclusion through submission to the divine will.
v6 οι πεινωντες (πειναω) pres. part. "the hungering ones"
την δικαιοσυνην (η) "righteousness" - Jesus is not speaking of social justice nor those who desire it, but the personal vindication of being set-right before God.
χορτασθησονται (χορταζω) fut. pas. "will be satisfied ".
v7 οι ελεημονες (ων ονος) "the merciful ones" – the reciprocal nature of mercy is stressed in Scripture e.g. The Lord's Prayer, "forgive us our sins as we forgive those who sin against us." This beatitude is not saying that those who show mercy will have mercy but rather they who show mercy will know mercy.
v8 τη καρδια (α) dat. "[the pure] in heart" - dative of locality, the purity of heart referred to here may be the righteousness not moral or sexual purity.
οψονται (οραω) fut. "will see [God]" – i.e. find themselves in God's presence.
v9 οι ειρηνοποιοι (ος) "the ones who make peace" – a hapax legomenon., Jesus is not thinking of conflict-resolution but referring to those who are no longer at war with God.
θεου (ος) gen. "[sons] of God" - genitive is relational; so “members of God's family”.
v10 οι δεδιωγμενοι (διωκω) perf. pas. part. "the persecuted ones" - perfect tense indicates persecution that began in the past and continues into the present. The meaning of the word is usually in the NT, "to put to flight" or "drive away", also carries a positive sense, "to follow with intensity in order to catch up with, to run after, chase after, pursue. press forward, press on, follow without hostile intent". The trouble is v10 and 11 indicate the sense is "blessed are you when people persecute you because of your standing with God." But Jesus is actually warning his disciples that a servant is not greater than the master; i.e. if they persecute the master they will most certainly persecute his servants!
v11 εστε "are you" - The change from the third to the second person is important. This application of the final beatitude guides us in the application of the others.
ονειδισωσιν (ονειδιζω) aor. subj. "people insult (reproach, upbraid) you ψευδομενοι (ψευδομαι) part. "falsely" - the act of being publically attacked alone does not carry any implied blessing, but if in telling the truth you are maligned falsely, when the 8th commandment is ignored, God blesses the truth teller.
ενεκεν + gen. "because of [me]" – causal – probably because of their testimony of Christ, or more likely their identification with Christ. This is a foreshadowing of the Passion and the denial and abandonment by the disciples.
v12 αγαλλιασθε (αγαλλιαω) imp. "be glad" - i.e. exceeding glad.
ο μισθος "reward" - the reward is divine approval. "payment/wage" is another possible translation but seems too little.
ουτως adv. "in the same way" – an idiom, a persecuted believer is in good company.