On Tuesday morning the pastors of Lutheran Saints in Ministry gather in Fairborn Ohio to discuss the texts for Sunday.

These are the contributions that are brought to the table.

Monday, November 13, 2017

Greek Text Study for Matthew 25:14-33

Greek Study Matthew 25:14-30

v14 οσπερ γαρ "Again it will be like" - This phrase is used to parallel the introduction of the preceding parable, we are dealing with a kingdom not a teaching parable. 
αποδημων (αποδημεω) pres. part. "going on a journey" – a word is used of moving away from one's own district.
δουλους (ος) "servants" – here "slaves" more is inappropriate.
παρεδωκεν (παραδιδωμι) aor. "give, deliver to” it is a stretched to translate as "entrusted".  This is not an opportunity but rather an obligation.
τα υπαρχοντα (υπαρχω) pres. part. "property" and idiom; "what belongs to someone".

v15 ταλαντα (ον) "talents (bags of money)" a unit of exchange which varied in value; the  word can be used of money, or a weight of between 26 and 36 kilos of copper, silver or gold. It does NOT refer to a skill or innate ability.
εκαστω dat. adj. "each" – a dative of indirect interest, he gave gold to each one.
kατα + acc. "according to [his]"
δυναμιν (ις εως) "ability" (literally power) this CAN mean a skill or innate ability.

v16 ο λαβων pres. part. "the man who had received
πορευθεις (πορευομαι) aor. part. "went [at once]" - attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the verb "worked". 
ευθεως, "immediately", so 15 & 16 translated: “Then, the servant who had received the five talents, immediately went and ηργασατο (εργαζομαι) aor. "put the money to work" which had been entrusted to him.

v17 ωσαυτως adv. "so also" – likewise 
ο "the one 
αλλα pro. "[two] more" - [two] others.

v18 δε ο λαβων (λαμβανω) aor. part. "but the man who had received" το εν "the  one
απελθων (απερχομαι) aor. part. "went off
αργυριον "money" – lit. silver, can also mean money in general. The normal way to hide money from thieves was to bury it, silver could be buried without damage.
απελθων (απερχομαι) aor. part. "went off" and dug a hole.

v19 μετα + acc. "After [much time]" – a temporal use of the preposition, the settling of accounts after a long interim. The ‘between times” is once again at the heart of this story….like last week’s about the in between times of his announced and actual coming, the question is asked again, “what will you do with your time as you wait?”  No weight is given to the delay nor any indication of what a "long time" might be.
μετ (μετα) + gen. "[settled accounts] with" - technical use  meaning " make reckoning."

v20 ο .... λαβων (λαμβανω) aor. part. "the man who had received [the five talents]"
λεγων (λεγω) pres. part. "he said" μοι dat. pro. "[you entrusted] me"
  αλλα adj. "[five] others [idiom = additional].
v21 αυτω dat. pro. "[His master replied]" - indirect object.
ευ adv. "well done".
επι + acc. "with [few things]
καταστησω (καθιστημι) fut. "I will put [you] in charge" i.e. greater responsibilities in the household
πολλων adj. "many {things}" the “greater responsibilities” awarded to the two faithful servants are not necessarily the same.
του κυριου (ος) gen. "[your] master's
χαραν (α) "happiness" - second of the two rewards is the delight of the master, cf. Jn.15:11. "joy" here may mean a "feast", so " happiness of the heavenly banquet".

v22-23 Repeat of above.

v24 προσελθων (προσερχομαι) aor. part. "then ...... came" - having come. temporal.
ο ειληφως (λαμβανω) perf. part. "the man who had received" note tense change  from aorist to perfect, expressing the fact that he is the man who has received a talent of  which he has made no use.
σκληρος adj. "hard, severe” - saying the master harvests where he has not sown, the  servant is saying the master is a shrewd exploiter
θεριζων (θεριζω) pres. part. "reaping” the imagery is of a farmer sowing a crop without actually scattering seed and harvesting without actually winnowing indicates a man with an eye for business who picks up profits in all sorts of places and probably should be elected president, oh wait, never mind…

v25 φοβηθεις (φοβεομαι) aor. pas. part. "I was afraid"  fear  freezes the servant in inaction.
  απελθων (απερχομαι) aor. part. "and went out" i.e. "I went away and hid."
ο σον adj. "that which belongs to you".

v26 οκνηρε adj. "lazy" (μορονισ in the previous parable, means essentially the same)

v27 εδει βαλειν (βαλλω) aor. inf. ""[you] should have put" deposited.
τα αργυρια (ον) "money
τοις τραπεζιταις (ης ου) dat. "with bankers" - 

v28 τω εξοντι (εξω) pres. part. "to the one who has [ten bags]

v29 τω ... εχοντι (εχω) dat. pres. part. "[everyone] who has" - a substantive, dative of  indirect advantage, the present tense being durative expresses ongoing action.
περισσευθησεται fut. pas. "he will have abundance"  i.e. more than enough"

v30 τον αχρειον adj. "useless [servant]
εξωτερον adj. "outside" - the household.

των οδοντων (ους οδος) gen. "[weeping and gnashing/grinding] of teeth" describing a situation of doom; pain, and anger. The phrase is used often in Matthew (8:12, 13:42, 50, 22:13, 24:51) and may reflect a popular proverb of the day expressing grief. 

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