v17 καταβας (καταβαινω) aor. part. "he went down" – from the mountain to the plain.
πεδινου adj. "a level [place]" - level, flat (in contrast to what is steep or uneven). Probably an allusion to Moses coming down from mount Sinai Ex.34:29. None-the-less, it could be a "level place" on the mountain; "he .... stopped at a piece of level ground".
μαθητων (ης ου) gen. "[a large crowd] of [his] disciples was there" Rather than "a large crowd", the sense is more likely that of a major gathering of Jesus' disciples, the whole number not being that large. Presumably Jesus came to the level place with some of his disciples and met the others there as well.
πληθος (ος) του λαου (ος) "a [great] multitude" - a mob of " people"
απο + gen. "from" – origin Τυπου και Σιδωνος "Tyre and Sidon" - Not implying a Gentile mission, rather the effectiveness of Jesus' mission in gathering the lost of Israel.
v18 ακουσαι (ακουω) aor. inf. "to hear" - As with "to be healed", the infinitive expresses purpose; "in order to hear."
οι ενοχλουμενοι (ενοχλεω) pres. pas. part. "those troubled" - the ones being plagued. The release of Satan's captives is a messianic sign.
v19 εζητουν (ζητεω) imperf. "tried [to touch]" - imperfect indicating repetitive action.
απτεσθαι (απτομαι) pres. inf. "to touch [him]" - to seize, grasp.
εξηρεχετο (εχερχομαι) imperf. "[power] was coming" - durative. The power referred to here is "the power of the Lord", 5:17, power that derives from God and completes his will. The words may describe an actual evidence, aura etc. alluding to the power evident in Moses when he came down from Sinai and his face “shone”.
v20 επαρας (επαιρω) aor. part. "looking at" - [adverbial, forming a temporal clause, while the "lifted up" most likely describes a focused stair.
μακαριοι adj. "blessed are you" - happy, contented, fortunate in a secular use "lucky”.
There is an Old Testament wisdom background to the use of this word that expresses God's favor toward a person; idiomatic - "privileged before God"
οι πτωχοι adj. "the poor" The pious poor who look to and depend on God" pushes in the right direction. Matthew uses "poor in spirit." Here the intended sense is religious: i.e. the meek and humble, the broken before God, the lost of Israel, the persecuted remnant. But the economic sense cannot be excluded, so Israel's righteous poor, those faithful to the law and disadvantaged by the “less pious rich”.
υμετερα "yours" – an emphatic - as if Jesus was individually pointing out the disciples.
εστιν (ειμι) pres. "is" - present tense indicates the disciples present possession of…
η βαλισεια του θεου "the kingdom of God" - For Luke, the kingdom is something we possess and enjoy; it entails all the blessings brought by the eschatological rule of God.
v21 οι πεινωντες (πειναω) pres. part. "the hungering ones”. Matthew says "hunger and thirst for righteousness", in the sense of "vindication". Here it is the hunger of lost Israel for the putting down of the enemy and the uplifting and blessing of the people of God in the eschatological kingdom.
χορτασθησεσθε (χορταζω) 2 pl. fut. pas. "you will be satisfied/filled/sated/receive all that you need. A divine passive; God does the filling. This conjures up the Old Testament image of sharing the blessings of the promised land, a land flowing with milk and honey. It is important to note that the hungry has both socioeconomic and religious overtones and that errors of interpretation occur when either element is removed.
οι κλαιοντες (κλαιω) pres. part. "the weeping, mourning, sorrowing ones”
γελασετε (γελαω) fut. "you will laugh".
v22 αφορισωσιν (αφοριζω) aor. subj. "they exclude" Here in the sense of "excommunicate" from the synagogue, although os could be the more general "ostracize."
ονειδισωσιν (ονειδιζω) aor. subj. "insult" i.e. to slander or verbally attack.
εκβαλωσιν (εκβαλλω) aor. subj. "reject" - throw out the sense is of banning even the mention of a person's name.
v23 χαρητε (χαιρω) aor. pas. imp. "rejoice" – an imperative; be happy.
σκιρτησατε (σκιρταω) aor. imp. "leap for joy" dance for happiness.
ιδου "behold" - pay attention; know assuredly that you will have a great reward
ο μισθος (ος) "reward" – wages, recompense based upon what a person has earned and deserves. The reward is possibly divine approval, but more likely a reference to the immanent eschatological fulfilment of all things which, because of its wonder and nearness, blunts the pain of present circumstances..
v24 πλην con. "but" - Strong adversative. "On the contrary."
ουαι "woe" - alas, disaster, horror. intense distress, possibly related to immanent divine judgment.
τοις πλουσιοις adj. "the rich ones”. If we have treated "the poor" as a religious descriptive then "the rich" must be treated in the same way rather than treating the phrase as an economic descriptive. The rich are those who are not rich toward God, they have not laid up treasure in heaven. The Old Testament allusion is to the prosperity of unrighteous Israel..
απεχετε (απεχω) pres. "you have already received" - all the comfort you will ever get.
την παρακλησιν (ις εως) "comfort" - encouragement, consolation.
v25 οι εμπεπλησμενοι (επιπλημι) perf. pas. part. "who are well fed" - perfect expressing a past feeding continuing into the present. Those who have all they could want.
πεινασετε (πειναω) fut. "will go hungry" in the future.
οι γελωντες (γελαω) pres. part. "the laughing ones” now
πενθησετε (πενθεω) fut. "will mourn then" Those who feel happy with their present lot in life are living a fool's paradise.
v26 καλως adv. "[speaks] well" - An adverb of manner; "praise you."
εποιουν (ποιεω) imperf. "treated/dealt with. durative expressing ongoing action.
τοις ψευδοπροφηταις (ης ου) dat. "the false prophets" a reference to the prophets who proclaimed peace when there was no peace (Jeremiah).