John 14:8-27 – Pentecost Year C
v8 δειξον (δειχνυμι) aor. imp. "show" - it seems that Phillip has misunderstood the nature of Jesus' promised revelation.
αρκει (αρκεω) pres. "that will be enough" - sufficient. "We will ask no more".
v9 ουκ εγνοκας (γινωσκω) perf. "don't you know me" - "know" here is stronger than "recognize".
τασουτω γρονω dat. "even after ...... such a long time" - Dative of time; duration is intended.
ο εωρακως (οραω) perf. part. "anyone who has seen [me]" - Usually translated as an indefinite relative clause, "whoever has seen me"; expresses uncertainty in English, so "to have seen me is to have seen the Father".
v10 ου πιστευεις (πιστευω) pres. "don't you believe" - The negation ου in a question expects a positive answer. Note the shift from "know" to "believe" – John seems to use these words interchangeably. While "know" is stronger than "recognize", "believe" involves trusting what is known.
μενων (μενω) pres. part. "abiding in me" – living; possibly in the sense "the Father who is permanently (constantly) in me", Bauer.
τα εργα "the works" - In John's this word is used for powerful revelatory signs.
v11 πιστευετε pres. imp. "believe [me]" – a command, modern English readers are often misled by the word "believe". The disciples "believe" in Jesus, in the sense of having put their faith in him and they "know " him in the sense of intellectual assent of his teachings, but their belief and knowledge is limited. They are not fully aware of the unique nature of the relationship between the Father and Son so that not having known Jesus in this sense, they also do not know the Father.
v12 αμην αμην λεω υμιν "I tell you the truth" - An introductory formula John uses when Jesus is making a significant point.
ο πιστευων pres. part. "anyone who has faith [in me]" - an indefinite relative clause expressed in English as a conditional sentence, "If anyone believes in me he will ....".
κακεινος pro. "that one also, also he [will do]. The emphatic pronoun fixes attention on the one who is to do
τα εργα "the works” i.e. the signs, more specifically, God's works, v10, so, not necessarily the same works as Jesus but the works God calls them to do.
τουτων gen. pro. "[he will do even greater things] than these]" – an ablative of comparison; "greater than these." The object is unstated, presumably "greater works" than Jesus' but the sense of these words is open to some dispute. Traditionally, "greater works than these" is understood to refer to conversions. Doing the Father's works refers to the power of the Spirit, eg., the conversion of 3,000 on Pentecost. Brown agrees, making the observation that the "works" which the disciples will undertake are those which are promised.
πορευομαι pres. "I am going" - am going. The present tense is futuristic, expressing certainty in a future event.
v13 ποιησω fut. "I will do" - bring it about.
αιτησητε (αιτεω) aor. subj. "you ask".
εν τω ονοματι (α ατος) "in my name" – a debatable phrase; in general "the name" means the person, or as Augustine put it, a request made "in accord with Christ's character." But it is likely that the "anything" is limited to requests made "under the authority of Jesus", i.e. based on a promise, or command of Jesus. So then, Jesus is offering his support in the performance of those works the Father has commissioned Jesus' disciples to do.
δοξασθη/ (δοξαζω) aor. pas. sub. "may bring glory".
v14 ποιησω (ποιεω) fut. "I will do it" - Jesus states he will answer the prayer; he will deal with it personally.
v15 εαν + subj. "if [you love]" - a conditional sentence, 3rd class, where the condition is assumed a possibility – so it is likely the disciples love Jesus so they will keep his commands.
αγαπατε (αγαπαω) pres. subj. "you love" - it is likely that keeping Jesus' commands entails the ongoing action of trusting Jesus so it is impossible to distinguish between the act of loving Jesus and the act of trusting Jesus – this narrows the meaning of “works”.
τηρησετε (τηρεω) fut. "you will obey" - keep, guard. If subjunctive (P66), the whole verse becomes the protasis of a conditional sentence with v16 the apodosis, so "You will do what I told you to do".
τας εντολας (η) "I command" - [you will keep] my commandments. "Believe in God, believe also in me", is the substance of his command to his disciples.
v16 καγω "and I" an emphatic - "none other than I".
ερωτησω (ερωταω) fut. "will ask" - As in a prayer request, not a question.
δωσει (διδωμι) fut. "he will give" – here is an East/West divide on the issue of the procession of the Spirit, either from the Father or from the Father and the Son. John doesn't make a distinction as to who sends the Spirit since there is unity of action in the Trinity.
παρακλητον (ος) masc. sing. "another Counselor" although neuter in Greek, John renders paraclete as masculine singular - he is a person, not a thing or just a power. The word is a verbal adjective functioning as a noun.
v17 της αληθειας (α) "of truth" - Adjectival, "communicates” or "bears witness to…”
ο κοσμος (ος) "the world" – usually neutral with respect to God, so creation except that in John it is usually negative, "in opposition to God".
λαβειν (λαμβανω) aor. inf. "[cannot] accept" - infinitive is complementary; to accept in John, is a matter of faith and humanity in rebellion is unable to exercise such faith.
ου θεωρει (θεωρεω) pres. "it neither sees [nor knows him]" - = to commune with i.e. enter into personal relation with.
v18 ουκ αφησω (αφιημι) fut. "I will not abandon.” A very strong word.
ορφανους adj. "orphans" used as a substantive, here in apposition to "you", so “friendless".
ερχομαι pres. "I am coming” the present tense gives greater certainty. It is unsure which "coming" Jesus refers to; his resurrection, the coming in the coming of the Spirit? It is unlikely the “second” coming. Given the context, in the Spirit is the most likely sense, but where does Jesus ever say that he comes in the Spirit? It is argued that Jesus, having promised the Spirit, encourages his disciples by telling them that he will soon return to be with them for a time (chapter 21?). Verse 19 supports this interpretation in that Jesus disciples get to "see" Jesus following the resurrection, although the "world" of unbelievers "will not ".
v19 ετι μικρον "before long" – an idiom: a little while, tiny moment, blink of an eye.
ουκετι θεωρει (θεωρεω) pres. "will not see [me]" - present tense again emphasizing the immediacy of this seeing. Jesus does not reveal himself to the world after resurrection, only to his disciples. Again it is uncertain whether this seeing is about the resurrection or the manifestation of the Holy Spirit.
ζησετε (ζαω) fut. "will live" - is dependent on what is seen, ie. is it the risen Christ or the manifested Spirit?
v20 εν εκεινη τη ημερα "in that day" - the day is not stated, Jesus is referring either to his resurrection or manifestation of the Spirit (20:22).
v21 τας εντολας (η) "[my] commands" - as above, although debatable, it is likely Jesus' instructions is about faith. So, a more general translation is "my authoritative words."
τηρων (τηρεω) pres. part. "obeys " i.e. whoever accepts his words and acts on them.
ο αγαπων pres. part. "the loving one - implies action not emotion.
αγαπηθησεται (αγαπαω) fut. pas. "will be loved [by my Father]" - passive brings out the idea that love is reciprocal, there is no suggestion God's love is dependent on ethical faithfulness only that the love received and the love shone are in a relationship that rests on faith.
εμφανισω (εμφανιζω) fut. "[I will] manifest " – reveal The revelation is not identified so we are left with the same set of options as above resurrection, spiritual manifestation, appearance of Christ in glory, or even a personal manifestation of Christ to prayerful believers. Again the manifestation of the Spirit seems the best option.