Greek Study Luke 7:1-10
v1 του λαου (ος) gen. "of the people [who were listening] a genitive so possessive; an idiom meaning "the people's ears".
v2 εκατονταρχου (ης ου) gen. "a centurion's [servant]" – another genitive, possessive; this soldier was a Roman mercenary in the employ of Herod Antipas as a tax enforcer or a temple policeman.
εντιμος adj. "valued highly" - either "valuable" in the sense of money or emotionally
τελευταν (τελευταω) pres. inf. "[and about] to die" - [the infinitive is complementary, so "Was on the point of dying and would have done so without intervention" or "Whose slave was so ill there was no hope of recovery".
v3 ακουσας (ακουω) aor. part. "heard" - participle is adverbial, the captain has heard of Jesus' reputation as a miracle worker.
των Ιουδαιων (ος) gen. "[some elders] of the Jews" - genitive is attributive; "Jewish elders." Given that "elders" is without an article, "some" is intended so possibly members of the Sanhedrin in or just local leading citizens.
ερωτων (ερωταω) οπως pres. part. "asking [him] to come" - this construction, οπως + subj, would normally form a purpose clause; "in order that he might save his slave's life", but as with πως it can take the role of αν object clause/dependent statement, "in order to ask him that he might come and heal his servant." This grammar underscores the centurion’s humility.
ελθων (ερχομαι) aor. part. "to come" - having come. Attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the verb "may heal"; "that he may come and heal."
v4 αξιος adj. "deserves" – worthy an adjective, stating a fact about the captain. The captain is highly regarded presumably because he respected Jewish customs (Fitzmyer).
ω dat. pro. "to whom” a dative of interest, introducing a relative clause which is classed as a qualitative consecutive relative viewed by linguists as a Latinism.
v5 αγαπα/ (αγαπαω) pres. "he loves" - present durative tense expressing a permanent attitude. Plummer notes that if he were a God-fearer Luke would have used "he loves our God", but he is probably not a proselyte, but rather a Gentile who respects Israel and its customs to the extent of building a synagogue. This indicates he was a person of means as a centurion’s wage was not that good and his reputation mitigates that he did not extort it.
v6 ου ... απεχοντος (απεχομαι) gen. pres. part. "not far" – literally not distant.
λεγων (λεγω) pres. part. "to say" - participle agrees with "centurion" not "friends" so is virtually attendant circumstance; "the centurion sent .... and said." His friends relay the centurion's words, giving the sense "the centurion sent friends with a message to him."
κυριε "Lord" - possibly just "Sir".
ου .. ικανος ειμι "I do not deserve" - I because he is a Gentile or reflecting his high opinion of Jesus.
ινα + subj. "to [have you come]" - construction here functions as an epexegetic infinitive explaining the adjective "worthy"; "I am not worthy that you should come under my roof." Jesus being a Jew, the captain does not want to expose an eminent person like Jesus to undue criticism (Danker).
υπο + acc. "under [my roof]" - spacial; idiom I am not fit to have you come to my home.
v7 ουδε neither [therefore, did I consider myself worthy to come to you] clause emphasizes the centurion's unworthiness. Not only is he unworthy of a visit from Jesus, he is unworthy of a visit to Jesus, which is why he has made contact through local elders.
λογω (ος) dat. "a word" - dative is instrumental, the centurion believe Jesus can heal his servant with a single word, ιαθητω, "be healed", even from a distance. This is the "great faith" Jesus refers to.
ο παις "[my] servant" – literally son - while a "servant", a young and affectionately regarded one; treated like a member of the family.
ιαθητω (ιαομαι) aor. pas. imp. "be healed” - use of the imperative here the actual word the captain wants Jesus to say. Zerwick suggests that the two imperatives ειπε and
ιαθητω express a Hebraic idiom giving the sense "speak... so that he may be healed."
v8 ανθρωπος (ος) "a man" - in the general sense so "a person"
τασσομενος (τασσω) pres. pas. part. appointed, placed - the participle is adjectival, limiting "man". The present tense is durative expressing an ongoing (lifelong?) condition.
υπο acc. "under [authority]" - expressing subordination, "under".
πορευθητι και πορευεται "'go,' and he goes" - The imperative "go" is aorist and "he goes" is present, this does not imply a time difference, but rather relates to aspect. The command presupposes the durative response; "when I say .... 'go,' ... he goes!"
v9 ακουσας (ακουω) aor. part. "when [Jesus] heard [this]" temporal.
εθαυμασεν (θουμαζω) aor. "he was amazed" - not an expression of admiration, but astonishment.
στραφεις (στρεφω) aor. pas. part. "turning" - expressing action accompanying the verb "he said". Such "turning" in Luke describes Jesus focusing his attention on an individual or τω .... οχλω (ος) " the crowd" ακαλουθουντι (ακολουθεω) dat. pres. part. "following". Jesus uses this as a “teachable moment.”
αυτω/ dat. pro. "him" - Dative of direct object.
λεγω υμιν "I tell you" - to emphasize the following τοσαυτην pro. "such great [faith]" in a qualitative sense and referring to reliance (faith) on Jesus' power and authority.
v10 υποστρεψαντες (υποστρεφω) aor. part. "then ... returned" οι πεμφθεντες (πεμπω)
aor. pas. part. "the men who had been sent" - the ones having been sent.
υγιαινοντα (υγιαινω) pres. part. "[found the servant] healthy" - the story does not concentrate on the cure but on the pronouncement made by Jesus regarding the centurion’s faith.