Greek Study Luke 13:10-17
10Now he was teaching in one of the synagogues on the Sabbath. 11And just then there appeared a woman with a spirit that had crippled her for eighteen years. She was bent over and was quite unable to stand up straight. 12When Jesus saw her, he called her over and said, “Woman, you are set free from your ailment.” 13When he laid his hands on her, immediately she stood up straight and began praising God. 14But the leader of the synagogue, indignant because Jesus had cured on the Sabbath, kept saying to the crowd, “There are six days on which work ought to be done; come on those days and be cured, and not on the Sabbath day.” 15But the Lord answered him and said, “You hypocrites! Does not each of you on the Sabbath untie his ox or his donkey from the manger, and lead it away to give it water? 16And ought not this woman, a daughter of Abraham whom Satan bound for eighteen long years, be set free from this bondage on the Sabbath day?” 17When he said this, all his opponents were put to shame; and the entire crowd was rejoicing at all the wonderful things that he was doing.
v10 ην διδασκων (διδασκω) pres. part. "Jesus was teaching" - a periphrastic imperfect, that accentuates durative action in the past.
εν μια των συναγωγων "in one of the synagogues" - the preposition εν is locative, expressing space and the genitive των συναγωγων is adjectival.
v11 και ιδου and behold ην (ειμι) "[a woman] was there" - The Textus Receptus adds the imperfect verb to-be after woman, probably to fix up the grammar.
εχουσα (εχω) pres. part. "who had been" ασθενειας (α) "crippled by [a spirit]" of infirmity, weakness. The simplest explanation is that the "spirit" is her spirit, so she "suffered from a weakening spirit", i.e. ill from some psychological cause.
ην συγκυπτουσα (συγκυπτω) pres. part. "she was bent over" – with the negated participleμη δυναμενη "not able" this forms a paraphrastic imperfect construction, emphasizing the durative nature of her condition (scoliosis?)
ανακυψαι (ανακυπτω) aor. inf. "straighten" - infinitive is complementary, completing the sense of the negated verb "she was not able". The qualifying prepositional phrase εις το παντελες, "completely" is unclear. Is she completely unable (at all) or unable completely to straighten herself (i.e. a bit)?
v12 ιδων (ειδον) aor. part. "when [Jesus] saw [her]" a temporal clause.
αυτη dat. pro. "[said] to her" απολελυσαι (απολυω) perf. pas. + gen. "you are set released” (set free) perfect tense expressing action with ongoing results, i.e. the cure is permanent.
της ασθενειας (a) gen. "from [your] infirmity" a genitive of direct object after an απο i.e. "set free from". She who was once characterized by this infirmity is now free to be redefined by the community!
v13 επεθηκεν (επιτιθημι) aor. "he put his [hands]" - Jesus touching a person, not an essential element in healing, but often used for reassurance, intimacy, involvement...
παραχρημα adv. "immediately"
ανωρθωθη (αναορθοω) aor. pas. "she straightened up" Note the passive so "suddenly she was standing straight and tall!"
εδοξαζεν (δοξαθω) imperf. "praised [God]" another imperfect expressing durative action; she wouldn't stop praising God.
v14 The ruler of the synagogue is literally applying Exodus 20:9.
αποκριθεις (αποκρινομαι) aor. pas. part. having answered
αγανακτων (αγανακτεω) pres. part. "indignant" - annoyed/angry at a perceived wrong. The participle is best taken as limiting the ruler of the synagogue who was indignant
οτι "because" Jesus had healed on τω σαββατω/ (ον) dat. "the Sabbath"
τω οχλω (ος) dat. "[said] to the people" δει εργαζεσθαι (εργαζομαι) pres. inf. "6 days for work" - infinitive functions as the subject of the verb "is necessary" ερχομενοι (ερχομαι) pres. part. "come [and be healed]" an attendant circumstance participle expressing action.
τη ημερα (α) dat. "on the day του σαββατου (ον) gen. "the Sabbath" of the Sabbath.
v15 υπακριται (ης ου) pl. "you hypocrites" Those who pretend to be other than what they are. The person is plural indicating Jesus is speaking to a wider group than just the ruler of the synagogue.
ου λυει (λυω) pres. "doesn't [each of you on the Sabbath] untie" This negation in a question expects a positive answer.
υμων gen. pro. "[each] of you" - genitive is adjectival.
τω σαββατω (ον) dat. "on the Sabbath" – a temporal dative.
απαγαγων (απαγω) aor. part. "lead it out" participle expressing action that accompanies the verb "give a drink".
v16 ουκ εδει "should not" this verb is often used to imply a divine necessity. If not a divine necessity, at least Jesus is making the point that, irrespective of it being the Sabbath day, he is bound to "set her loose", given that he is able to do so and she is a daughter of Abraham.
ταυτην acc. pro. "this" - emphatic by position.
ουσαν (ειμι) pres. part. "[a daughter of Abraham]" participle is adjectival, so "the one being" = "who is a daughter of Abraham." This argument seems to be that if it is literally proper to untie an animal to give it a drink, then it is obviously proper to "untie" a woman who is a Daughter of Abraham.
ο Σατανας "Satan" - the source of all sickness, although, as noted above, her condition is probably not the consequence of demon possession.
εδησεν (δεω) aor. "has kept bound" aorist expresses punctiliar action, so the immediacy of her being bound and now no longer bound, is in mind.
ιδου behold interjection here serves to emphasize how long this woman has been affected by her illness. This emphasis can be brought out by word order; "For eighteen years Satan has fettered her".
λυθηναι (λυω) aor. pas. inf. "be set free" is an epexegetic subject of the verb "it is necessary", explaining what is necessary. The passive may be a divine passive, God does the loosing.
v17 λεγοντος (λεγω) pres. part. gen. "when [he] said [this]" a genitive absolute construction and is usually translated as a temporal clause, οι αντικειμενοι (αντικειμαι) pres. part. "[all his] opponents" - κατησχυνοντο (καταισχυνω) imperf. pas. "were humiliated" or "were covered with confusion", which may be a throwback phrase to Old Tesmante theology about how God defeats his enemies by first confusing them.
επι + dat. "[the people were delighted] with" - expressing cause; "on the basis of/because of."
τοις ενδοξοις dat. adj. "[all] the wonderful deeds", or "things", possibly "words"
τοις γινομενοις (γινομαι) dat. pres. part. "[he] was doing" accomplished [by him]. The participle is adjectival, limiting "the glorious / wonderful things / deeds / words". "Accomplished" generally expresses what Jesus was doing, but in the immediate context he actually is "debating" the leader of the Synagogue. Still, the reference may well be to the healing, cf. Isa.45:16. An idiomatic translation would be: "His critics were looking quite silly and red-faced. The congregation was delighted and cheered him on".