Greek Study Luke 14:25-35
v25 στραφεις (στρεφω) aor. part. "turning" Attendant circumstance participle, expressing action accompanying the main verb "said"; "He turned and spoke to them", NJB.
v26 ου μισει (μισεω) pres. "does not hate" - present tense is durative; "continues to hate".
ετι τε και "yes, even" την ψυχην εαυτου "his own life" - in the sense of his being.
v27 ο στις pro. "anyone who" - introduces an indefinite relative clause.
ου βασταζει (βασταζω) pres. "does not carry [his cross]" Matthew refers to taking up the cross rather than carrying one. The image of discipleship in terms of cross-bearing here is likened to a prisoner having to carry his own cross for execution, a referent to the self-denial of Christ.
ερχεται οπισω μου "follow me" - in the sense of commit to Christ.
ειναι (ειμι) pres. inf. "[cannot] be"
v28 τις "which” - an interrogative pronoun; a question-form expecting a negative answer.
εξ (εκ) + gen. "one [of you]" θελων pres. part. "wants"
οικοδομησαι (οικοδομεω) aor. inf. "to build"
πυργον (ος) "a tower" - a watch tower or farm building (both agricultural images).
καθισας (καθιζω) aor. part. "sit down [and estimate]" - having sat down [figure out].
v29 ινα μηποτε + subj. "for if" - introduces a negated purpose clause. The person plans this project in order that everyone does not begin to ridicule him.
θεντος (τιθημι) aor. part. gen. "he lays" – a genitive absolute participle, best treated as a temporal clause.
μη ισχυοντος (ισχυω) pres. part. gen. "is not able" – another genitive absolute forming a causal clause.
εκτελεσαι (εκτελεω) aor. inf. "to finish" – a complementary infinitive
οι θεωρουντες (θεωρεω) pres. part. "[everyone] who sees it" - participle can be taken as a substantive modified by "all", or "all" can be taken as a substantival adjective modified by the participle which as an attributive adjective.
αρξωνται (αρχω) aor. subj. "will" εμπαιζειν (εμπαιζω) pres. inf. "ridicule" mock, taunt - infinitive is complementary, complementing the sense of the verb "may begin".
v30 λεγοντες (λεγω) pres. part. "saying" - The participle is adverbial, modal, expressing the manner of the "ridicule", as NIV, or possibly instrumental, expressing means - ridiculed "by saying."
ουτος ο ανθρωπος "this man” construction usually expresses derision.
οικοδομειν (οικοδομεω) pres. inf. "[began] to build" εκτελεσαι (εκτελεω) aor. inf. "[was not able] to finish" – (infinitive is again complementary).
v31 η τις + part "or suppose [a king]" - a rhetorical question expecting a negative answer.
πορευομενος (πορευομαι) pres. part. "is about to go [to war]" - participle is adverbial, possibly conditional, serving as the indicative finite verb; if a king goes out to encounter another king in war, then does not sit down first ....?" On the other hand it may just be temporal, "when going out", or modal, expressing manner, "contemplating going".
συμβαλειν (συμβαλλω) aor. inf. "against" - engage with, throw together into battle, infinitive expresses purpose, "in order to engage in battle."
βασιλει (ευς εως) dat. "[another] king" - Dative of direct object after a συν prefix verb, here as an infinitive - συμβαλειν =συν + βαλλω, "to meet with."
ουχι καθισας (καθιζω) aor. part. "will he not [first] sit down [and consider]" - confer/deliberate/decide.
υπαντησαι (υπανταω) aor. inf. "[he is able] ..... to oppose" - to meet, oppose, confront in battle; infinitive is epexegetic, clarifying the substantive "able/strong/possible."
τω ... ερχομενω/ (ερχομαι) pres. part. "the one coming" - participle serves as a substantive, dative of direct object after the verb υανταω, "meet with"
v32 ει δε μη γε "if he is not able" - introduces the protasis of a conditional sentence, 1st then he will send a delegation ...."
αποστειλας (αποστελλω) aor. part. "he will send [a delegation]" "having sent" is aorist while "asks" is present. It is usually accepted that the aspect of both should be the same, but here we have a perfective aorist (punctiliar) and an imperfective present (durative).
v33 πας εξ υμων, "every one of you" and αποτασσεται πασιν τοις εαυτου υπαρχουσιν
saying goodbye to all he has – in context the message is consider the cost.
ουτως ουν "in like manner - those who would be a disciple need to assess whether they can "give up everything".
ουκ απατασσεται (αποτασσω) pres. "does not give up" - the present tense is best taken to express a characteristic feature, i.e. a disciple will "relinquish everything". It is possible to argue that the present tense is durative: "continually ready to give up all that he has got in order to follow ".
τοις ... υπαρχουσιν (υπαρχω) pres. part. "[everything you] have" participle serves as a dative of direct object after the verb αποτασσεται, "say goodby to". If discipleship entails renouncing all worldly wealth then none of us can rightly claim the status of disciple. The idea that free grace gets us in, renunciation keeps us in, is sanctification by works and is the problem addressed by Paul in Romans and Galatians.
ειναι (ειμι) pres. inf. "[cannot] be" μου gen. pro. "my [disciple]"
v34 μωρανθη/ (μωραινω) aor. subj. pas. "loses its saltiness" – an idiom, “to become tasteless/foolish/insipid".
αρτυθησεται (αρτυω) fut. "be made salty again" – idiom, be restored to usefulness.
v35 κοπιαν (α) "the manure pile"