Greek Study John 1:29-34
v29 ερχομενον (ερχομαι) pres. part. "coming" serves to introduce a dependent statement of perception expressing what John saw.
ιδε "look" – an interjection used to focus attention, "take note."
ο αμνος (ος) "the lamb" του θεου (ος) gen. "of God"– a title given great weight in Christian theology, even though "lamb" appears only four times in the entire New Testament (first here and v36, also in Acts 8:32 (as a quote) and finally in 1 Peter 1:19. The last two quotes refer to the expiatory lamb of Passover. If "lamb" in this verse is a sacrificial lamb, what does it represent? It may represent the Passover lamb but the problem is the Passover offering did not have to be a lamb, nor was the victim called a lamb, rather the paschal victim was called "Passover". There are other possibilities (e.g. lamb led to the slaughter of Isa. 53:7, the lamb of the daily sacrifice, or scapegoat/guilt-offering of Lev.14:12f, or even the apocalyptic “warrior lamb” of Rev. 5:6, 7:17).
ο αιρων (αιρω) pres. part. "who takes away" - participle functions as a substantive so either "to take up and carry" or "to carry off" referring to the removal of evil from the earth. Most likely referring to Christ's coming sacrifice as the sacrificial lamb.
του κοσμου (ος) gen. "[the sin] of the world" – this lamb not only removes Israel's sin, but the sin of του κοσμου, i.e. "all creation without distinction or exception".
v30 υπερ + gen. "with reference to/concerning".
οπισω + gen. "after [me]" - in time rather than space so “my successor.”
εμπροσθεν + gen. "[has] surpassed [me]" who takes rank above me.
πτωτος adj. + gen. "[he was] first [before me]" – i.e. prior, prominent, foremost.
v31 καγω "I myself" emphatic.
ουκ η δειν (οιδα) pluperf. "did not know him" - this doesn't mean the Baptist didn't know Jesus but rather not one of his disciples; know here in the sense of “study under”.
βαπτιζων (βαπτιζω) pres. part. "[I came] baptizing" - expressing the manner of his coming.
εν + dat. "with [water]" - instrumental, "by means of", the Baptist's role is depreciated in that he cleanses Israel with a symbol of water but Jesus will cleanse with the actual Spirit.
φανερωθη/ (φανεροω) aor. pas. subj. "might be manifested" i.e. made known to τω Ισραηλ dat. "Israel" i.e. it will be an epiphany/theophany.
v32 εμαρτυρησεν (μαρτυρεω) aor. "[John] gave this testimony" he describes what he saw.
λεγων (λεγω) pres. part. saying (redundant for emphasis, John was known for his preaching as much as his baptizing!)
τεθεαμαι (θεαομαι) perf. "I have seen” - a dramatic historical present perfect where the perfect is used to recall a past event that underlines the fact the Baptist eye witnessed it.
καταβαινον (καταβαινω) pres. part. "come down" - a dependent statement of perception expressing what John saw, namely, "the Spirit descend from heaven." It is unclear whether "come down" should be attached to "heaven" or to "dove".
περιστεραν (α) "a dove" – pigeon actually – a symbolic intention of the dove is unclear but it seems best to take the line that the divine Spirit is represented as a bird-like creature resting on Jesus to authorize him as the Spirit-imbued messenger to Israel.
εμεινεν (μενω) aor. "remain" - abide, continued - a constative aorist expressing the beginning of a permanent abiding of the Holy Spirit with Jesus.
v33 ουκ η/δειν (οιδα) pluperfect "I would not have known / [I myself] did not know [him]" – the pluperfect is usually used for extreme emphasis, but here it is best translated as a simple past tense; "I myself saw [but], did not recognize him".
αλλ (αλλα) "except" - Adversative; "but".
ο πεμψας (πεμπω) aor. part. "the one who sent [me]" βαπτιζειν (βαπτιζω) inf. "to baptize" εν "with [water]"
ειπεν (ειπον) aor. "said” here John reveals he has had a direct revelation from God, which underscored the claim he is a prophet in the classical vein.
ον αν + subj. "the one" εφ (επι) + acc. "upon [whom]" αταβαινον (καταβαινω) pres. part. "comes down" as with "abiding/remaining" forms a dependent statement of perception expressing what was seen.
ο βαπτιζων (βαπτιζω) pres. part."[is] he who will baptize" -the image is of the promised outpouring of the Spirit of God, (Ezk.36:25-26). The question is, in what sense is the Spirit poured out? While Brown argues for "cleansing" others argue for "empowering", but without doubt, the story affirms the absolute superiority of Jesus over the Baptist and of the Spirit's redemptive function. One thing is clear, the theophany at Jesus’ baptism is meant for John!
πνευματι αγιω "the Holy Spirit" (Translators handle this differently. Most reject "a holy Spirit" which is the most literal, some have "the holy Spirit", (not capitalized) to avoid any Trinitarian referent, but most use "the Holy Spirit" to assert the full nature of the Spirit's personhood and Trinitarian Doctrine.
v34 καγω "I" emphatic.
εωρακα (οραω) perf. "have seen" an extensive perfect, i.e. John has witnessed a past event, the descent of the Spirit upon Jesus, that has ongoing consequence.
μεμαρτυρηκα (μαρτυρεω) perf. "testify" an intensive perfect, ie. John's past testimony is ongoing into the present.
ουτος adj. "this one” (the one who baptizes with the Holy Spirit and takes away the sin of the world) whom the Baptist sees coming toward him, is the Messiah and the,
ο υιος του θεου "the Son of God" –a messianic title rather than being indicative of any filial relationship. "Son of God" serves as a variant reading, other possibilities are "chosen one of God" or "the chosen one"- all of which are also messianic titles of lesser stature.