Greek Study Luke 13:31-35
v31 εν αυτη τη ωρα "at that hour" λεγοντες (λεγω) pres. part. "[they came] and said" circumstance participle expressing action so “in that very moment they came and said."
εξελθε (εξερχομαι) aor. imp. "depart" - aorist expresses punctiliar action, "Get out of Herod's territory" –a friendly warning or the Pharisees are trying to scare Jesus away.
πορευου (πορευομαι) pres. imp. "journey [from here]” present tense expressing a durative action.
αποκτειναι (αποκτεινω) aor. inf. "to kill”.
v32 πορευθεντες (πορευομαι) aor. pas. part. "[YOU] go!" - these Pharisees are Herod's messengers, so "go back to Herod."
τη αλωπεκι (εχτοσ) dat. "[that] fox" the fox while cunning and vicious, is in Aramaic culture considered an insignificant creature, so there are 3 possible insults at work here; 1) Herod is an insignificant, second rate politician; 2) Herod is a thief and a liar or 3) Herod is malicious and destructive (like a fox, which is, after all, a vermin). Is suppose it might be “all of the above”, but given the culture most likely it is #1.
εκβαλλω pres. "I will drive out" - durative futuristic present – i.e. irrespective of Herod’s threat Jesus intends to continue his ministry in Herod’s territory (I’ll do what I want, you can’t stop me!)
αποτελω (αποτελεω) pres. "[heal] people".
σημερον και αυριον "today and tomorrow" – a Semitic idiom (which are rare) that literally means "two days", but here idiomatically an indefinite period; "day by day".
τη τριτη "on the third day" – another idiom, meaning “final day” – so the "day by day" ministry of Jesus will progress to a final day at a specific future moment (for Luke either the resurrection or ascension, as the transfiguration is past). Some claim this is a reference to the three days in the tomb….but then the message would be nonsense to Herod, and it is, as Luke portrays, a specific response to Herod. So it is more likely another insult. Whoda thunk Jesus could be so political?
τελειουμαι (τελειοω) pres. pas. "I will reach my goal" –a theological passive identifying God as the agent of Jesus' completion.
v33 πλην "nevertheless- a conjunction expressing a contrast with "I am completed" - nevertheless ...."
δει "it is necessary” used of divine necessity.
πορευεσθαι (πορευομαι) pres. inf. "press on" i.e. the messianic mission of Jesus (his journey to Jerusalem) must continue to its God ordained conclusion.
τη εχομενη (εχω) dat. pres. mid. part. "the next day" a stereotypical phrase of the period meaning "the immediately following day".
ουκ ενδεχεται (ενδεχομαι) pres. "surely it is not possible” reflecting the divine imperative- a touch of irony here; prophets have died outside Jerusalem, but it would be inappropriate for Jesus to do so.
απολεσθαι (απολλυμι) aor. inf. "[can] die"
v34 Ιερουσαλημ voc. "O Jerusalem" – the vocative adds force, this begins a lament.
η αποκτεινουσα (αποκτεινω) pres. part. "you who kill" - present tense expressing the constant λιθοβολουσα (λιθοβολεω) pres. part. "stoning" of God's messengers!
τους απεσταλμενους (αποστελλω) perf. pas. part. "those sent" - the perfect tense refers to prophets sent in the past – it is unlikely that it refers to the apostles being sent in the future.
επισυναξαι (επισυναγω) aor. inf. "to gather" - to gather together. Colloquial 1st. aor. form. The infinitive ` may be classified as forming a dependent statement of perception, expressing what Jesus wants for Israel.
τα τεκνα "children" – not παιδια “powerless ones” which has political overtones, this means male heir, or “affectionate one” and has a clear familial overtone.
εαυτης gen. "her [chicks]" - possessive.
ουκ ηθελησατε (θελω) aor. "you were not willing".
v35 ιδου "behold" pay attention.
ο οικος "[your] house" - some translate "temple", but it is more likely that "the people" is intended.
αφιεται (αφιημι) pres. pas. "is abandoned" God abandons the “house” of Israel, taking away his protection and leaving the people to look after themselves.
ου μη ιδητε (ειδον) aor. subj. "you will not see" - subjunctive with the double negatives forms an emphatic negation; "you will never see.
εως + subj. "until [you say]" ευλογημενος (ευλογεω) perf. pas. part. "Blessed" participle is substantival and best taken with "in the name of the Lord"; "blessed in the name of God / blessed of God is he who comes in the name of the Lord". Possibly hortatory, "God bless him who ....", Barclay.
ο ερχομενος (ερχομαι) pres. part. "the one coming” - participle functions as a substantive; a descriptive of Christ's enthronement.