On Tuesday morning the pastors of Lutheran Saints in Ministry gather in Fairborn Ohio to discuss the texts for Sunday.

These are the contributions that are brought to the table.

Tuesday, February 23, 2016

Luke 13:1-6 Greek Text

Greek Study Luke 13:1-9

v1 παρησαν (παρειμι) imperf. "there were [some] passing by; a phrase used only once by Luke in his gospel. "Came to him" seems best.
εν αυτω τω καιρω "at that moment of time - temporal use of preposition.
απαγγελλοντες (απαγγελω) pres. part. "who brought news. If we take the verb παρησαν to mean "came" then the participle is adverbial expressing purpose, "they came in order to report "; if, on the other hand, we take the verb to mean "they were present", then the participle serves as an adjective.
εμιξεν (μιγνυμι) aor. "[blood] had mixed" - the sense is "slay together"; so Pilate had given orders for some Galileans to be mass slaughtered while offering sacrifices.

v2 αποκριθεις (αποκρινομαι) aor. pas. part. "[Jesus] answered
δοκειτε (δοκεω) οτι pres. do you suppose that" – a dependent statement of perception expressing what they may think.
παρα + acc. "worse [sinners] than" - an uncommon Semitism (?) comparative taking the sense, Jesus disputes the comparison. "Greater sinners than all other Galileans?"
οτι  πεπονθασιν (πασχω) perf. "because they suffered" - perfect tense expressing "the state of affairs which led to the verdict sinner". 
v3 υμιν dat. pro. "[I tell] you [no]" - [I say] to you [no]. Dative of indirect object.
αλλ (αλλα) "but" - Adversative, as NIV.
εαν μη + subj. "unless" - if not. Introducing a negated conditional clause, 3rd class, where the stated condition has the possibility of becoming a reality, depending on whether there is repentance or not.
απολεισθε (απολλυμι) fut. "you [too] will [all] be destroyed” Jesus is NOT being subtle here.
ομοιως adj. so likewise- expressing a comparison, not between different forms of death, but between the violent nature of the Galilean's death and eternal death. The Galileans' death was vicious and horrible, eternal punishment has something about that as well!  Some commentators argue for a comparison between the punishment meted out to the Galileans' for their minor disturbance compared to that of some future national rebellion.

v4 Jesus gives another example of a nasty death to again make the point all people sin and so all die, but the degree of horror in a person's death is not related to the extent of their sin.
εκεινοι οι δεκαοκτω - "those eighteen" – referring to a well-known event.
ο πυργος "the tower" a tall construction of some kind, "tower" is possible, but a more general construction seems likely, a multi-story building perhaps. Most Israeli homes were at least 2 stories tall, and also remember, Jesus was a contractor so he knew whereof he spoke!!
οφειλεται (ης ου) "guilty" – literally “owed more, i.e. debtors which is the Aramaic sense of a debtor toward God = sinner. 
κατοικουντας (κατοικεω) pres. part. "[all the others] living in Jerusalem" – so it was a local event.
  v5 ουχι "[I tell you] no!" - "Far from it, I tell you", an idiom, sound like Paul in Romans 6.
εαν μη "unless" - forming a negated conditional clause 3rd. class, as above.
μετανοητε (μετανοεω) pres. subj. "you repent" – repentance in the NT. takes the sense of turning around, toward God.

v6 παραβολην (η) "parable" - a teaching parable, distinct from a kingdom parable (a hidden gospel message), serves as an illustration.
πεφυτευμενην (φετευω) perf. pas. part. "planted" figuratively, “growing” so a man had  a fig tree growing in his...
τω αμπελωνι (ων ωνος) "vineyard" - usually a vineyard, actually a garden where there are grape vines and other fruit-bearing trees and plants. 
ζητων (ζητεω) pres. part. "to look" - participle is adverbial, expressing purpose, "he came in order to find fruit"-  the tree was mature, but unproductive. It is often thought the "fig tree" was a symbol for Israel, but the parable here merely illustrates the danger of ignoring the call to repent.
v7 τον αμπελουργον (ος) "the man who took care of the vineyard" – i.e. the gardener.
τρια adj. "for three years" - Meaning it has been three years since the fig tree reached fruit-bearing maturity, not three years since its planting. Depending on the variety, a fig tree could take up to four years before bearing fruit sop this is not a parable about patience.
αφ ου now ερχομαι pres. I have come ζητων (ζητεω) pres. part. to look for" since it has been three years since I came looking for fruit on this fig tree and didn't find any"
ινατι "why [should it use up the soil?]" a shortened form of ινα τι γενηται, lit. "that what may happen" = "why?", to introduce a rhetorical question. It is pointless to waste valuable space in the garden that could be used for a productive tree.   

v8 ο ... αποκριθεις (αποκρινομαι) aor. part. "the man replied" - one having answered  the presence of an article seems to indicate the participle is serving as a subject of λεγει, "says", but that doesn't make sense. The Semitic construction is probably intended, so it reads "the gardener answered the man and said"
αφες (αφιημι) aor. imp. "leave" - permit
εως ο{του + subj. until preposition and the pronoun followed by a subjunctive verb forms an indefinite temporal clause - so "give me time to dig around it and manure it".

v9 μεν ..... δε on the one hand ...... but on the other hand  καν (και αν) + subj. if conditional clause where the stated condition has the possibility of becoming a reality.
εις το μαλλον "next year" for the time to come this phrase has some missing words; so there are several possible translations, "if it will bring fruit, then let it stand in the time to come” or "if it bears fruit, we may postpone the question." None-the-less, the specific meaning of the phrase "against next year” is preferred; so “one more growing season” or idiomatically; “one last chance”.
ει μη γε + ind. "if not" - taken at face value it means that the bearing of fruit is unlikely.

εκκοψεις (εκκοπτω) fut. "then cut [it] down" - future tense is imperatival (you WILL/MAY cut it down)!

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