On Tuesday morning the pastors of Lutheran Saints in Ministry gather in Fairborn Ohio to discuss the texts for Sunday.

These are the contributions that are brought to the table.

Wednesday, February 10, 2016

Luke 4:1-13 Greek COmments

Luke 4:1-13

v1 πληρης adj. "full" - adjective as a substantive - the word "full" is often used by Luke in the sense of equipped to speak powerfully and truthfully for God.
πνευματος αγιου gen. "of the Holy Spirit" – as above
ηγετο (αγω) imperf. pas. "was led" – a divine passive; note Luke does not further the anomaly found in Matthew where Jesus is led out into the wilderness after having been with the Baptist in the wilderness.
v2 πειραζομενος (πειραζω) pres. pass. part. "was tempted" participle expressing action accompanying the verb "was led"; "he was led...and tempted...." The present tense indicates that the testing is during the 40 days, as was Israel's testing during the 40 years.
ουκ εφαγεν ουδεν "he didn't eat nothing” a double negative, Luke could have used words appropriate for fasting but has chosen not to. So Jesus is not fasting. 
συντελεσθεισων (συντελεω) gen. pas. part. "at the end of [them]" - having been completed - a genitive absolute that is temporal; "when they were ended he was…"
επεινασεν (πειναω) " hungry" - temptation reaches a crescendo when Jesus is affected by hunger. There is an interesting sermon topic. 
v3 ο διαβολος "the devil" – Greek equivalent to the Old Testament satan meaning "adversary" or "slanderer". Matthew uses either "satan" or "the tempter."
ει + ind. "if" - Introducing a hypothetical – an idionm; we wouls =say, “for the sake of argument.
του θεου (ος) gen. "[the Son] of God" - genitive is relational; some commentators argue Satan is using this title as a descriptive of Jesus' filial relationship but the term is also used as a messianic title for Israel. It is surely more appropriate for Satan to cast doubts upon God's willing provision for Jesus' journey as the new Israel in the same way he tested the faith of Israel as they journeyed from Egypt to the promised land.
τω λιθω (ος) dat. "[tell this] stone" - Dative of indirect object.
ινα + subj. "to [become]" - introducing a dependent statement of indirect speech, commanding what Jesus should tell the stone.
αρτος (ος) sing. "bread" – actually loaf -  singular is more appropriate than Matthew's "loaves".
v5 αναγαγων (αναγω) aor. part. "led [him] up to a high place" - No mention here of a mountain as in Matthew, just going up. Also note Matthew has this as the last test.
χρονου (ος) gen. "a moment of time
της οικουμενης (η) gen. "of the world" - the inhabited world, not just the Empire.

v6 την εξουσιαν (α) "[all their/this] authority" – Luke’s theology is the Satan has the whole world in his hands!
 δοξαν (α) "glory [of them]. possessive genitive .
οτι "for" - because.
παραδεδοται (παραδιδωμι) perf. pas. "it has been given" - it has been given. What has been given to Satan? Probably both power and glory, but in any case, Satan has been given "it" and has the right to give "it" to whomsoever he wills. 
ω εαν + subj. "to anyone [I want to]" - a relative conditional clause, 3rd. class, where the condition has the possibility of coming true.
v7 ενωπιον + gen. [you bow down] before [me] – special – the positon of subservience of a subject to a master/ruler..
πασα "all" – everything over which Satan has authority within creation. Of course, Satan is also a liar and best not to make deal with a known liar.  Not that it ever stops a politician. 

v8 προσκυνησεις (προσκυνεω) fut. "worship/serve"  see Deut.6:13. Some follow the modern tendency to translate this word as "serve", but it is not a service word, but rather expresses the act of obeisance, falling down before the divine, and so is properly translated by the English word "worship". 
v9 ηγαγεν (αγω) aor. "led" - brought.
το πτερυγιον (οϖ) "the highest point" – literally the “little wing” as high part of the temple jutting out from the wall was called.
του ιερου (ον) gen. "of the temple
εντευθεν adv. "[down] from here" - From where they were standing (not at Satan's feet) they are onlookers, the test seems designed to force a divine response for the protection of the messiah so the test is for the Father here and not the Son. 
v10 γεγραπται (γραφω) perf. pas. "it is written" –standard introduction to a Scripture quote.
του διαφυλαξαι (διαφυλασσω) aor. inf. "to guard [you] carefully" Luke is fond of the construction and του διαφυλαξαι σε is not found in Matthew's account.  This is (maybe) a very mangled quote from Psalm 91
v11 και οτι "and that” introducing another quote from Psalm 90:10-11 - quoted separately to support the case that God protects a godly person. Jesus, however, already knows that the messiah is to be saved through not from death.
μηποτε + subj. "so that [you will] not [strike]" – an indefinite negation with a subjective verb used to form a negated purpose clause, "in order that not ...."- again, mangled Greek.
v12 αποκριθεις (αποκρινομαι) aor. pas. part. "[Jesus] answered" – a Semitic construction.
ουκ εκπειρασεις (εκπειραζω) fut. "do not put ..... to the test" – the future here functions as an imperative. The people of Israel put God to the test at Massah Ex.17:3.

v13 συντελεσας (συντελεω) aor. part. "when [the devil] had finished" αντα πειρασμον (ος) "all this tempting" - απ (απο) + gen. "[he left him]"
αχρι καιρου "an opportune time" – a God appointed time – which seems to imply Satan is removed until allowed to return!

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